GSNOR Deficiency Enhances In Situ Skeletal Muscle Strength, Fatigue Resistance, and RyR1 S-Nitrosylation Without Impacting Mitochondrial Content and Activity

Younghye Moon, Yenong Cao, Jingjing Zhu, Yuanyuan Xu, Wayne E Balkan, Emmanuel S. Buys, Francisca Diaz, W. Glenn Kerrick, Joshua Hare, Justin Percival

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Scopus citations


Aim: Nitric oxide (NO) plays important, but incompletely defined roles in skeletal muscle. NO exerts its regulatory effects partly though S-nitrosylation, which is balanced by denitrosylation by enzymes such as S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), whose functions in skeletal muscle remain to be fully deciphered. Results: GSNOR null (GSNOR-/-) tibialis anterior (TA) muscles showed normal growth and were stronger and more fatigue resistant than controls in situ. However, GSNOR-/- lumbrical muscles showed normal contractility and Ca2+ handling in vitro, suggesting important differences in GSNOR function between muscles or between in vitro and in situ environments. GSNOR-/- TA muscles exhibited normal mitochondrial content, and capillary densities, but reduced type IIA fiber content. GSNOR inhibition did not impact mitochondrial respiratory complex I, III, or IV activities. These findings argue that enhanced GSNOR-/- TA contractility is not driven by changes in mitochondrial content or activity, fiber type, or blood vessel density. However, loss of GSNOR led to RyR1 hypernitrosylation, which is believed to increase muscle force output under physiological conditions. cGMP synthesis by soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) was decreased in resting GSNOR-/- muscle and was more responsive to agonist (DETANO, BAY 41, and BAY 58) stimulation, suggesting that GSNOR modulates cGMP production in skeletal muscle. Innovation: GSNOR may act as a "brake" on skeletal muscle contractile performance under physiological conditions by modulating nitrosylation/denitrosylation balance. Conclusions: GSNOR may play important roles in skeletal muscle contractility, RyR1 S-nitrosylation, fiber type specification, and sGC activity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)165-181
Number of pages17
JournalAntioxidants and Redox Signaling
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 1 2017



  • fatigue
  • mitochondria
  • nitric oxide
  • S-nitrosylation
  • sGC

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology

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