Growth in stratospheric chlorine from short-lived chemicals not controlled by the Montreal Protocol

R. Hossaini, M. P. Chipperfield, A. Saiz-Lopez, J. J. Harrison, R. Von Glasow, R. Sommariva, Elliot L Atlas, M. Navarro, S. A. Montzka, W. Feng, S. Dhomse, C. Harth, J. Mühle, C. Lunder, S. O'Doherty, D. Young, S. Reimann, M. K. Vollmer, P. B. Krummel, P. F. Bernath

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

We have developed a chemical mechanism describing the tropospheric degradation of chlorine containing very short-lived substances (VSLS). The scheme was included in a global atmospheric model and used to quantify the stratospheric injection of chlorine from anthropogenic VSLS (ClyVSLS) between 2005 and 2013. By constraining the model with surface measurements of chloroform (CHCl<inf>3</inf>), dichloromethane (CH<inf>2</inf>Cl<inf>2</inf>), tetrachloroethene (C<inf>2</inf>Cl<inf>4</inf>), trichloroethene (C<inf>2</inf>HCl<inf>3</inf>), and 1,2-dichloroethane (CH<inf>2</inf>ClCH<inf>2</inf>Cl), we infer a 2013 ClyVSLS mixing ratio of 123 parts per trillion (ppt). Stratospheric injection of source gases dominates this supply, accounting for ∼83% of the total. The remainder comes from VSLS-derived organic products, phosgene (COCl<inf>2</inf>, 7%) and formyl chloride (CHClO, 2%), and also hydrogen chloride (HCl, 8%). Stratospheric ClyVSLS increased by ∼52% between 2005 and 2013, with a mean growth rate of 3.7 ppt Cl/yr. This increase is due to recent and ongoing growth in anthropogenic CH<inf>2</inf>Cl<inf>2</inf> - the most abundant chlorinated VSLS not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4573-4580
Number of pages8
JournalGeophysical Research Letters
Volume42
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 16 2015

Fingerprint

Montreal Protocol
chlorine
phosgene
chloride
injection
hydrogen chlorides
atmospheric models
tetrachloroethylene
trichloroethylene
chloroform
mixing ratios
mixing ratio
chlorides
hydrogen
degradation
products
gases
gas
chemical
atmospheric model

Keywords

  • dichloromethane
  • Montreal Protocol
  • ozone
  • phosgene
  • stratosphere
  • VSLS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)
  • Geophysics

Cite this

Hossaini, R., Chipperfield, M. P., Saiz-Lopez, A., Harrison, J. J., Von Glasow, R., Sommariva, R., ... Bernath, P. F. (2015). Growth in stratospheric chlorine from short-lived chemicals not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. Geophysical Research Letters, 42(11), 4573-4580. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL063783

Growth in stratospheric chlorine from short-lived chemicals not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. / Hossaini, R.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Harrison, J. J.; Von Glasow, R.; Sommariva, R.; Atlas, Elliot L; Navarro, M.; Montzka, S. A.; Feng, W.; Dhomse, S.; Harth, C.; Mühle, J.; Lunder, C.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; Reimann, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Krummel, P. B.; Bernath, P. F.

In: Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 42, No. 11, 16.06.2015, p. 4573-4580.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hossaini, R, Chipperfield, MP, Saiz-Lopez, A, Harrison, JJ, Von Glasow, R, Sommariva, R, Atlas, EL, Navarro, M, Montzka, SA, Feng, W, Dhomse, S, Harth, C, Mühle, J, Lunder, C, O'Doherty, S, Young, D, Reimann, S, Vollmer, MK, Krummel, PB & Bernath, PF 2015, 'Growth in stratospheric chlorine from short-lived chemicals not controlled by the Montreal Protocol', Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 4573-4580. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL063783
Hossaini R, Chipperfield MP, Saiz-Lopez A, Harrison JJ, Von Glasow R, Sommariva R et al. Growth in stratospheric chlorine from short-lived chemicals not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. Geophysical Research Letters. 2015 Jun 16;42(11):4573-4580. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL063783
Hossaini, R. ; Chipperfield, M. P. ; Saiz-Lopez, A. ; Harrison, J. J. ; Von Glasow, R. ; Sommariva, R. ; Atlas, Elliot L ; Navarro, M. ; Montzka, S. A. ; Feng, W. ; Dhomse, S. ; Harth, C. ; Mühle, J. ; Lunder, C. ; O'Doherty, S. ; Young, D. ; Reimann, S. ; Vollmer, M. K. ; Krummel, P. B. ; Bernath, P. F. / Growth in stratospheric chlorine from short-lived chemicals not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. In: Geophysical Research Letters. 2015 ; Vol. 42, No. 11. pp. 4573-4580.
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