Grouping practices and reading outcomes for students with disabilities

Batya Elbaum, Sharon Vaughn, Marie Hughes, Sally Watson Moody

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

78 Scopus citations


This meta-analytic review investigated the relationship between reading outcomes for students with disabilities (learning disabilities, behavior disorders) and the grouping formats (student pairs, small groups, combinations of different formats) used during their reading instruction. Twenty studies produced between 1975 and 1995 met criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Results indicated positive effects for alternative grouping formats compared to whole class instruction; support for the efficacy of student pairing was particularly strong. In addition, analyses indicated that outcomes for students involved in cross-age tutoring varied significantly by students' role (tutor vs. tutee) within the pair. Implications of the findings are discussed with regard to classroom practice in the teaching of reading to students with disabilities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)399-415
Number of pages17
JournalExceptional children
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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