Gravity changes and deformation at Ki¯lauea Volcano, Hawaii, associated with summit eruptive activity, 2009-2012

Marco Bagnardi, Michael P. Poland, Daniele Carbone, Scott Baker, Maurizio Battaglia, Falk C Amelung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Analysis of microgravity and surface displacement data collected at the summit of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii (USA), between December 2009 and November 2012 suggests a net mass accumulation at ∼1.5 km depth beneath the northeast margin of Halema'uma'u Crater, within Kilauea Caldera. Although residual gravity increases and decreases are accompanied by periods of uplift and subsidence of the surface, respectively, the volume change inferred from the modeling of interferometric synthetic aperture radar deformation data can account for only a small portion (as low as 8%) of the mass addition responsible for the gravity increase. We propose that since the opening of a new eruptive vent at the summit of Kilauea in 2008, magma rising to the surface of the lava lake outgasses, becomes denser, and sinks to deeper levels, replacing less dense gas-rich magma stored in the Halema'uma'u magma reservoir. In fact, a relatively small density increase (-3) of a portion of the reservoir can produce the positive residual gravity change measured during the period with the largest mass increase, between March 2011 and November 2012. Other mechanisms may also play a role in the gravity increase without producing significant uplift of the surface, including compressibility of magma, formation of olivine cumulates, and filling of void space by magma. The rate of gravity increase, higher than during previous decades, varies through time and seems to be directly correlated with the volcanic activity occurring at both the summit and the east rift zone of the volcano.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7288-7305
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans
Volume119
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2014

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Volcanoes
volcanoes
magma
Gravitation
volcano
gravity
gravitation
uplift
high gravity environments
calderas
Vents
vents
Subsidence
Microgravity
subsidence
volume change
synthetic aperture radar
lava
cumulate
microgravity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Geophysics
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Gravity changes and deformation at Ki¯lauea Volcano, Hawaii, associated with summit eruptive activity, 2009-2012. / Bagnardi, Marco; Poland, Michael P.; Carbone, Daniele; Baker, Scott; Battaglia, Maurizio; Amelung, Falk C.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans, Vol. 119, No. 9, 01.09.2014, p. 7288-7305.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bagnardi, Marco ; Poland, Michael P. ; Carbone, Daniele ; Baker, Scott ; Battaglia, Maurizio ; Amelung, Falk C. / Gravity changes and deformation at Ki¯lauea Volcano, Hawaii, associated with summit eruptive activity, 2009-2012. In: Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans. 2014 ; Vol. 119, No. 9. pp. 7288-7305.
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