Graphene Defects in Saccharide Carbon Dots Govern Electrochemical Sensitivity

Charles C. Chusuei, Christopher J. Clark, Raja Ram Pandey, Ethan T. Williams, Carissa Shuxteau, Elif S. Seven, Roger M. Leblanc

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Galactose (Gal), lactose (Lac), and glucose (Glu) derived carbon dots (CDs) were evaluated for their utility as electrochemical sensing composites using acetaminophen (APAP) as a probe molecule. The goal of this work is to ascertain the role of graphene defects on electrochemical activity. Higher sp2-to-sp3 hybridized carbon ratios (in parentheses) in the CDs correlated with higher sensitivity in the order according to measured Raman IG/ID intensities: GluCDs (6.53)<LacCDs (9.30)<GalCDs (10.18). A dynamic measurement in the 0–2.0 mmol dm−3 APAP range at pH=7.0 was achieved, suitable for practical APAP toxicity monitoring. Defect density within the GalCDs provided the highest sensitivity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2261-2266
Number of pages6
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2021


  • acetaminophen
  • carbon dots
  • defects
  • graphene
  • Raman

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Electrochemistry


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