Gossypol, a phytochemical with BH3-mimetic property, sensitizes cultured thoracic cancer cells to Apo2 ligand/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand

Wen Shuz Yeow, Aris Baras, Alex Chua, Duc M. Nguyen, Shailen S. Sehgal, David S. Schrump, Dao Nguyen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: Chemotherapeutic agents sensitize cancer cells to Apo2 ligand/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo2L/TRAIL) via recruitment of the mitochondria-dependent activation of caspase and induction of apoptosis. This study was designed to evaluate whether gossypol, a phytochemical compound with BH3-mimetic property that functions as an inhibitor of Bcl2/BclXL, would sensitize cultured thoracic cancer cells to this death-inducing ligand. Methods: Cancer cell lines from the lung (H460, H322), the esophagus (TE2, TE12), and the pleura (H290, H211) or primary normal cells were treated with gossypol+Apo2L/TRAIL combinations. Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated by (4,5-dimethylthiazo-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assays, respectively. Caspase 9 and 3 specific proteolytic activity in combination-treated cells was determined by fluorometric enzymatic assay. Results: Gossypol, selectively cytotoxic to cancer cells and not primary normal cells, significantly sensitized thoracic cancer cells to Apo2L/TRAIL as indicated by 1.5- to more than 10-fold reduction of Apo2L/TRAIL 50% inhibitory concentration values in cells treated with gossypol+Apo2L/TRAIL combinations. Whereas less than 20% of cancer cells exposed to either gossypol (5 μmol/L) or Apo2L/TRAIL (20 ng/mL) were dead, more than 90% of cells treated with the drug combinations were apoptotic. Combination-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis was completely abrogated either by overexpression of Bcl2 or by the selective caspase 9 inhibitor. This combination was not toxic to normal cells. Conclusion: Gossypol profoundly sensitizes thoracic cancer cells to the cytotoxic effect of Apo2L/TRAIL via activation of the mitochondria-dependent death signaling pathway. This study provides evidence for the profound anticancer activity of this drug combination and should be further evaluated as a novel targeted molecular therapeutic for thoracic cancers.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Volume132
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2006
Externally publishedYes

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Gossypol
Phytochemicals
Thorax
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Apoptosis
Ligands
Neoplasms
Caspase 9
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Mitochondria
Caspase Inhibitors
DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase
Pleura
Poisons
In Situ Nick-End Labeling
Enzyme Assays
Drug Combinations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Surgery

Cite this

Gossypol, a phytochemical with BH3-mimetic property, sensitizes cultured thoracic cancer cells to Apo2 ligand/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. / Yeow, Wen Shuz; Baras, Aris; Chua, Alex; Nguyen, Duc M.; Sehgal, Shailen S.; Schrump, David S.; Nguyen, Dao.

In: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Vol. 132, No. 6, 01.12.2006.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Gossypol, a phytochemical with BH3-mimetic property, sensitizes cultured thoracic cancer cells to Apo2 ligand/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand",
abstract = "Objectives: Chemotherapeutic agents sensitize cancer cells to Apo2 ligand/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo2L/TRAIL) via recruitment of the mitochondria-dependent activation of caspase and induction of apoptosis. This study was designed to evaluate whether gossypol, a phytochemical compound with BH3-mimetic property that functions as an inhibitor of Bcl2/BclXL, would sensitize cultured thoracic cancer cells to this death-inducing ligand. Methods: Cancer cell lines from the lung (H460, H322), the esophagus (TE2, TE12), and the pleura (H290, H211) or primary normal cells were treated with gossypol+Apo2L/TRAIL combinations. Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated by (4,5-dimethylthiazo-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assays, respectively. Caspase 9 and 3 specific proteolytic activity in combination-treated cells was determined by fluorometric enzymatic assay. Results: Gossypol, selectively cytotoxic to cancer cells and not primary normal cells, significantly sensitized thoracic cancer cells to Apo2L/TRAIL as indicated by 1.5- to more than 10-fold reduction of Apo2L/TRAIL 50{\%} inhibitory concentration values in cells treated with gossypol+Apo2L/TRAIL combinations. Whereas less than 20{\%} of cancer cells exposed to either gossypol (5 μmol/L) or Apo2L/TRAIL (20 ng/mL) were dead, more than 90{\%} of cells treated with the drug combinations were apoptotic. Combination-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis was completely abrogated either by overexpression of Bcl2 or by the selective caspase 9 inhibitor. This combination was not toxic to normal cells. Conclusion: Gossypol profoundly sensitizes thoracic cancer cells to the cytotoxic effect of Apo2L/TRAIL via activation of the mitochondria-dependent death signaling pathway. This study provides evidence for the profound anticancer activity of this drug combination and should be further evaluated as a novel targeted molecular therapeutic for thoracic cancers.",
author = "Yeow, {Wen Shuz} and Aris Baras and Alex Chua and Nguyen, {Duc M.} and Sehgal, {Shailen S.} and Schrump, {David S.} and Dao Nguyen",
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T1 - Gossypol, a phytochemical with BH3-mimetic property, sensitizes cultured thoracic cancer cells to Apo2 ligand/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand

AU - Yeow, Wen Shuz

AU - Baras, Aris

AU - Chua, Alex

AU - Nguyen, Duc M.

AU - Sehgal, Shailen S.

AU - Schrump, David S.

AU - Nguyen, Dao

PY - 2006/12/1

Y1 - 2006/12/1

N2 - Objectives: Chemotherapeutic agents sensitize cancer cells to Apo2 ligand/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo2L/TRAIL) via recruitment of the mitochondria-dependent activation of caspase and induction of apoptosis. This study was designed to evaluate whether gossypol, a phytochemical compound with BH3-mimetic property that functions as an inhibitor of Bcl2/BclXL, would sensitize cultured thoracic cancer cells to this death-inducing ligand. Methods: Cancer cell lines from the lung (H460, H322), the esophagus (TE2, TE12), and the pleura (H290, H211) or primary normal cells were treated with gossypol+Apo2L/TRAIL combinations. Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated by (4,5-dimethylthiazo-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assays, respectively. Caspase 9 and 3 specific proteolytic activity in combination-treated cells was determined by fluorometric enzymatic assay. Results: Gossypol, selectively cytotoxic to cancer cells and not primary normal cells, significantly sensitized thoracic cancer cells to Apo2L/TRAIL as indicated by 1.5- to more than 10-fold reduction of Apo2L/TRAIL 50% inhibitory concentration values in cells treated with gossypol+Apo2L/TRAIL combinations. Whereas less than 20% of cancer cells exposed to either gossypol (5 μmol/L) or Apo2L/TRAIL (20 ng/mL) were dead, more than 90% of cells treated with the drug combinations were apoptotic. Combination-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis was completely abrogated either by overexpression of Bcl2 or by the selective caspase 9 inhibitor. This combination was not toxic to normal cells. Conclusion: Gossypol profoundly sensitizes thoracic cancer cells to the cytotoxic effect of Apo2L/TRAIL via activation of the mitochondria-dependent death signaling pathway. This study provides evidence for the profound anticancer activity of this drug combination and should be further evaluated as a novel targeted molecular therapeutic for thoracic cancers.

AB - Objectives: Chemotherapeutic agents sensitize cancer cells to Apo2 ligand/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo2L/TRAIL) via recruitment of the mitochondria-dependent activation of caspase and induction of apoptosis. This study was designed to evaluate whether gossypol, a phytochemical compound with BH3-mimetic property that functions as an inhibitor of Bcl2/BclXL, would sensitize cultured thoracic cancer cells to this death-inducing ligand. Methods: Cancer cell lines from the lung (H460, H322), the esophagus (TE2, TE12), and the pleura (H290, H211) or primary normal cells were treated with gossypol+Apo2L/TRAIL combinations. Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated by (4,5-dimethylthiazo-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assays, respectively. Caspase 9 and 3 specific proteolytic activity in combination-treated cells was determined by fluorometric enzymatic assay. Results: Gossypol, selectively cytotoxic to cancer cells and not primary normal cells, significantly sensitized thoracic cancer cells to Apo2L/TRAIL as indicated by 1.5- to more than 10-fold reduction of Apo2L/TRAIL 50% inhibitory concentration values in cells treated with gossypol+Apo2L/TRAIL combinations. Whereas less than 20% of cancer cells exposed to either gossypol (5 μmol/L) or Apo2L/TRAIL (20 ng/mL) were dead, more than 90% of cells treated with the drug combinations were apoptotic. Combination-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis was completely abrogated either by overexpression of Bcl2 or by the selective caspase 9 inhibitor. This combination was not toxic to normal cells. Conclusion: Gossypol profoundly sensitizes thoracic cancer cells to the cytotoxic effect of Apo2L/TRAIL via activation of the mitochondria-dependent death signaling pathway. This study provides evidence for the profound anticancer activity of this drug combination and should be further evaluated as a novel targeted molecular therapeutic for thoracic cancers.

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