Glutamine Synthetase: Role in Neurological Disorders

Arumugam R. Jayakumar, Michael D Norenberg

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

26 Scopus citations

Abstract

Glutamine synthetase (GS) is an ATP-dependent enzyme found in most species that synthesizes glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. In brain, GS is exclusively located in astrocytes where it serves to maintain the glutamate-glutamine cycle, as well as nitrogen metabolism. Changes in the activity of GS, as well as its gene expression, along with excitotoxicity, have been identified in a number of neurological conditions. The literature describing alterations in the activation and gene expression of GS, as well as its involvement in different neurological disorders, however, is incomplete. This review summarizes changes in GS gene expression/activity and its potential contribution to the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders, including hepatic encephalopathy, ischemia, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease, and astroglial neoplasms. This review also explores the possibility of targeting GS in the therapy of these conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)327-350
Number of pages24
JournalAdvances in neurobiology
Volume13
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016

Keywords

  • Ammonia
  • Astrocytes
  • Excitotoxicity
  • Glutamine
  • Glutamine synthetase
  • Neurological disorders
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Neurology
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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