OBJECTIVE - We characterized fluctuations between states of glycemia in progressors to type 1 diabetes and studied whether those fluctuations are related to the early C-peptide response to oral glucose. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) from differing states of glycemia were compared within individuals for glucose and C-peptide. Dysglycemic OGTTs (DYSOGTTs) were compared with normal OGTTs (NLOGTT), while transient diabetic OGTTs (TDOGTTs) were compared with subsequent nondiabetic OGTTs and with OGTTs performed at diagnosis. RESULTS - Of 135 progressors with four or more OGTTs, 30 (22%) went from NLOGTTs to DYSOGTTs at least twice. Area under the curve (AUC) glucose values from the second NLOGTT were higher (P < 0.001) than values from the first NLOGTT. Among 98 progressors whose DYSOGTTs and NLOGTTs were synchronized for the time before diagnosis, despite higher glucose levels (P < 0.01 at all time points) in the DYSOGTTs, 30-to 0-min C-peptide difference values changed little. Likewise, 30-to 0-min C-peptide difference values did not differ between TDOGTTs and subsequent (within 3 months) nondiabetic OGTTs in 55 progressors. In contrast, as glucose levels increased overall from the first to last OGTTs before diagnosis (P < 0.001 at every time point, n = 207), 30- to 0-min C-peptide difference values decreased (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS - Glucose levels fluctuate widely as they gradually increase overall with progression to type 1 diabetes. As glucose levels increase, the early C-peptide response declines. In contrast, glucose fluctuations are not related to the early Cpeptide response. This suggests that changes in insulin sensitivity underlie the glucose fluctuations.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism