Generalization of Faraday's law to include nonconservative spin forces

S. E. Barnes, S. Maekawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

207 Scopus citations


The usual Faraday's Law E=-dΦ/dt determines an electromotive force E which accounts only for forces resulting from the charge of electrons. In ferromagnetic materials, in general, there exist nonconservative spin forces which also contribute to E. These might be included in Faraday's Law if the magnetic flux Φ is replaced by [/(-e)]γ, where γ is a Berry phase suitably averaged over the electron spin direction. These contributions to E represent the requirements of energy conservation in itinerant ferromagnets with time dependent order parameters.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number246601
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Issue number24
StatePublished - Jun 15 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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