General strain theory: Additional evidence using cross-cultural data

Ekaterina V. Botchkovar, Charles R. Tittle, Olena Antonaccio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

62 Scopus citations


Data from random samples of residents in major cities of Russia, Ukraine, and Greece are employed to test hypotheses about linkages among objective strain, subjective strain, anger, and criminal probability specified in general strain theory (GST). In addition, the potential conditioning effects of religiosity and self-control on the strain-criminal probability relationship are investigated. Results show more challenge than support for GST. In particular, all supportive results are for the Ukrainian sample with the Greek and Russian samples providing little confirmation to the study's hypotheses. Although analyses show some support for the basic premises of GST, using a measure of subjective strain does not improve results, and self-control and religiosity do not seem to condition the effects of strain on criminal probability. Overall, the findings point to contextual specificity of GST as currently formulated and suggest the need for further theorizing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)131-176
Number of pages46
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2009


  • General strain theory
  • Greece
  • Russia
  • Ukraine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Law


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