Gemini: A noninferiority study of saquinavir/ritonavir versus lopinavir/ritonavir as initial HIV-I therapy in adults

Sharon Walmsley, Anchalee Avihingsanon, Jihad Slim, Douglas J. Ward, Kiat Ruxrungtham, Jason Brunetta, U. Fritz Bredeek, Dushyantha Jayaweera, Carol Jean Guittari, Peter Larson, Malte Schutz, François Raffi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

105 Scopus citations


Introduction: Direct comparison of the efficacy and safety of different agents is needed to guide selection of optimal treatment regimens for therapy-naive HIV-1-infected patients. Methods: Gemini was a 48-week, multicenter, open-label, noninferiority trial in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected adults randomized to either saquinavir/ritonavir (SQV/r) 1000 mg/100 mg twice a day or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) 400 mg/100 mg twice a day, each with emtricitabine/tenofovir 200 mg/300 mg every day. Results: A similar proportion of participants in the SQV/r (n = 167) and LPV/r (n = 170) arms had HIV-I RNA levels <50 copies per milliliter at week 48: 64.7% vs 63.5% and estimated difference in proportion for noninferiority: 1.14%, 96% confidence interval: -9.6 toi 1.9 (P < 0.012), confirming that SQV/r was noninferior to LPV/r treatment. There were no significant differences in week 48 CD4 counts between arms. The rate and severity of adverse events were similar in both groups. There were no significant differences in the median change from baseline between arms in plasma lipids except for triglyceride levels, which were significantly higher in the LPV/r at week 48. Conclusions: In treatment-naive, HIV-I-infected patients, SQV/r treatment was noninferior in virologie suppression at 48 weeks to LPV/r treatment and offered a better triglyceride profile.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)367-374
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2009


  • Antiretroviral therapy
  • Drug-resistant HIV mutations
  • Fasting plasma lipids
  • HIV protease inhibitor
  • Lopinavir
  • Saquinavir

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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