Gas exchange and lung morphology after surfactant replacement in experimental adult respiratory distress syndrome induced by repeated lung lavage

P. Berggren, B. Lachmann, T. Curstedt, G. Grossmann, B. Robertson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

67 Scopus citations

Abstract

Severe respiratory insufficiency was induced in adult guinea pigs by repeated lung lavage. The animals were then ventilated for 75 min with 100% O2, insufflation pressure 28/6-8 cmH2O (2.7/0.6-0.8 kPa), frequency 30/min, and 33% inspiration time. One group of animals (I) was treated with protein-depleted porcine surfactant, prepared by a combination of sucrose-gradient centrifugation, heating to 90°C, and chloroform/methanol extraction. Another group (II) received the phospholipid fraction of porcine surfactant, isolated from minced lungs by chloroform/methanol extraction and liquid-gel chromatography. Surfactant was administered in two 1-ml doses (lipid concentration 90 mg/ml) instilled via the tracheal cannula about 15 and 45 min after the lavage procedure. Non-treated, lavaged animals served as controls. After 75 min of ventilation, control values for PaO2 and PaCO2 were 13.3 ± 6.8 and 6.8 ± 2.3 kPa (mean ± s.d.), respectively. The corresponding values in Group I of surfactant-treated animals were 52.9 ± 7.7 and 4.4 ± 1.1 kPa, in Group II 53.5 ± 7.3 and 4.8 ± 1.3 kPa (P < 0.02-0.002). The two groups of surfactant-treated animals also had significantly improved alveolar air expansion in histological sections, as reflected by increased alveolar volume density (0.67 ± 0.05 and 0.62 ± 0.11 vs. 0.45 ± 0.08 in controls; P < 0.002). The benefits of surfactant replacement in this experimental model were thus similar to those previously observed in animal models of neonatal surfactant deficiency as well as in babies with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Our data suggest that surfactant replacement might have a therapeutic effect also in clinical adult RDS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)321-328
Number of pages8
JournalActa Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Volume30
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1986

Keywords

  • Adult respiratory distress syndrome
  • experimental model
  • gas exchange
  • lung lavage
  • lung morphology
  • surfactant replacement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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