Functional contributions of carbohydrate on AIDS virus glycoprotein

Elizabeth Stansell, Ronald Charles Desrosiers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Envelope glycoprotein spikes on the surface of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV†) are used by the virus to bind to cellular receptors to gain entry into target cells. As such, the envelope spikes are the targets of antibodies that can neutralize viral infectivity. Fifty percent or more of the mass of the viral-encoded surface glycoprotein of HIV, and of its close monkey relative simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), is actually carbohydrate; it is one of the most heavily glycosylated proteins that can be found in mammals. It has been clearly demonstrated that one of the functions of this carbohydrate is to shield viral epitopes that would otherwise be the direct target of antibodies that could neutralize viral infection. In addition, it is now generally accepted that the carbohydrate on the viral envelope glycoprotein is recognized by multiple cellular lectins of the host lymphoreticular system, and these interactions play a role in the dissemination of virus within the host as well as the release of modulatory cytokines. Our work recently demonstrated fundamental differences in the composition of the carbohydrate on HIV type 1, the cause of the AIDS pandemic, versus the SIV in the sooty mangabey monkey, a natural host that does not develop disease from its infection. we now speculate that this fundamental difference in carbohydrate composition reflects evolutionary pressures on both virus and host. Furthermore, carbohydrate composition on the virus and genetic differences in carbohydrate-sensing proteins of the host could be critically important for the generalized lymphoid activation that characterizes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)201-208
Number of pages8
JournalYale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Volume83
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2010
Externally publishedYes

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Viruses
Glycoproteins
Carbohydrates
HIV
Simian Immunodeficiency Virus
Haplorhini
Cercocebus atys
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Chemical analysis
Antibodies
Membrane Glycoproteins
Pandemics
Virus Diseases
Lectins
Mammals
HIV-1
Epitopes
Proteins
Cytokines
Pressure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Functional contributions of carbohydrate on AIDS virus glycoprotein. / Stansell, Elizabeth; Desrosiers, Ronald Charles.

In: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, Vol. 83, No. 4, 12.2010, p. 201-208.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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