From the 2006 NIDRR SCI measures meeting functional recovery measures for spinal cord injury: An evidence-based review for clinical practice and research

Kimberly D Anderson, Sergio Aito, Michal Atkins, Fin Biering-Sørensen, Susan Charlifue, Armin Curt, John Ditunno, Clive Glass, Ralph Marino, Ruth Marshall, Mary Jane Mulcahey, Marcel Post, Gordana Savic, Giorgio Scivoletto, Amiram Catz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

127 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background/Objective: The end goal of clinical care and clinical research involving spinal cord injury (SCI) is to improve the overall ability of persons living with SCI to function on a daily basis. Neurologic recovery does not always translate into functional recovery. Thus, sensitive outcome measures designed to assess functional status relevant to SCI are important to develop. Method: Evaluation of currently available SCI functional outcome measures by a multinational work group. Results: The 4 measures that fit the prespecified inclusion criteria were the Modified Barthel Index (MBI), the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the Quadriplegia Index of Function (QIF), and the Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM). The MBI and the QIF were found to have minimal evidence for validity, whereas the FIM and the SCIM were found to be reliable and valid. The MBI has little clinical utility for use in the SCI population. Likewise, the FIM applies mainly when measuring burden of care, which is not necessarily a reflection of functional recovery. The QIF is useful for measuring functional recovery but only in a subpopulation of people with SCI, and substantial validity data are still required. The SCIM is the only functional recovery outcome measure designed specifically for SCI. Conclusions: The multinational work group recommends that the latest version of the SCIM (SCIM III) continue to be refined and validated and subsequently implemented worldwide as the primary functional recovery outcome measure for SCI. The QIF may continue to be developed and validated for use as a supplemental tool for the nonambulatory tetraplegic population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)133-144
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Volume31
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jul 14 2008
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Spinal Cord Injuries
Quadriplegia
Spinal Cord
Research
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Nervous System
Population

Keywords

  • ASIA impairment scale
  • Functional independence measure
  • Modified barthel index
  • Outcome measures
  • Paraplegia
  • Quadriplegia index of function
  • Recovery of function
  • Reliability
  • Spinal cord independence measure
  • Spinal cord injuries
  • Tetraplegia
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

Anderson, K. D., Aito, S., Atkins, M., Biering-Sørensen, F., Charlifue, S., Curt, A., ... Catz, A. (2008). From the 2006 NIDRR SCI measures meeting functional recovery measures for spinal cord injury: An evidence-based review for clinical practice and research. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, 31(2), 133-144.

From the 2006 NIDRR SCI measures meeting functional recovery measures for spinal cord injury : An evidence-based review for clinical practice and research. / Anderson, Kimberly D; Aito, Sergio; Atkins, Michal; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Charlifue, Susan; Curt, Armin; Ditunno, John; Glass, Clive; Marino, Ralph; Marshall, Ruth; Mulcahey, Mary Jane; Post, Marcel; Savic, Gordana; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Catz, Amiram.

In: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, Vol. 31, No. 2, 14.07.2008, p. 133-144.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Anderson, KD, Aito, S, Atkins, M, Biering-Sørensen, F, Charlifue, S, Curt, A, Ditunno, J, Glass, C, Marino, R, Marshall, R, Mulcahey, MJ, Post, M, Savic, G, Scivoletto, G & Catz, A 2008, 'From the 2006 NIDRR SCI measures meeting functional recovery measures for spinal cord injury: An evidence-based review for clinical practice and research', Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 133-144.
Anderson, Kimberly D ; Aito, Sergio ; Atkins, Michal ; Biering-Sørensen, Fin ; Charlifue, Susan ; Curt, Armin ; Ditunno, John ; Glass, Clive ; Marino, Ralph ; Marshall, Ruth ; Mulcahey, Mary Jane ; Post, Marcel ; Savic, Gordana ; Scivoletto, Giorgio ; Catz, Amiram. / From the 2006 NIDRR SCI measures meeting functional recovery measures for spinal cord injury : An evidence-based review for clinical practice and research. In: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2008 ; Vol. 31, No. 2. pp. 133-144.
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AU - Marino, Ralph

AU - Marshall, Ruth

AU - Mulcahey, Mary Jane

AU - Post, Marcel

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AU - Scivoletto, Giorgio

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