Frequency of private spiritual activity and cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women: The Women's Health Initiative

Elena Salmoirago-Blotcher, George Fitchett, Kathleen M. Hovey, Eliezer Schnall, Cynthia Thomson, Christopher A. Andrews, Sybil Crawford, Mary Jo O'Sullivan, Stephen Post, Rowan T. Chlebowski, Judith Ockene

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: Spirituality has been associated with better cardiac autonomic balance, but its association with cardiovascular risk is not well studied. We examined whether more frequent private spiritual activity was associated with reduced cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Methods: Frequency of private spiritual activity (prayer, Bible reading, and meditation) was self-reported at year 5 of follow-up. Cardiovascular outcomes were centrally adjudicated, and cardiovascular risk was estimated from proportional hazards models. Results: Final models included 43,708 women (mean age, 68.9 ± 7.3 years; median follow-up, 7.0 years) free of cardiac disease through year 5 of follow-up. In age-adjusted models, private spiritual activity was associated with increased cardiovascular risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.31 for weekly vs. never; HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.11-1.40 for daily vs. never). In multivariate models adjusted for demographics, lifestyle, risk factors, and psychosocial factors, such association remained significant only in the group with daily activity (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.30). Subgroup analyses indicate this association may be driven by the presence of severe chronic diseases. Conclusions: Among aging women, higher frequency of private spiritual activity was associated with increased cardiovascular risk, likely reflecting a mobilization of spiritual resources to cope with aging and illness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)239-245
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of Epidemiology
Volume23
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Women's Health
Confidence Intervals
Bible
Meditation
Spirituality
Religion
Proportional Hazards Models
Observational Studies
Life Style
Reading
Heart Diseases
Chronic Disease
Odds Ratio
Demography
Psychology

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Spirituality
  • Women's health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology

Cite this

Salmoirago-Blotcher, E., Fitchett, G., Hovey, K. M., Schnall, E., Thomson, C., Andrews, C. A., ... Ockene, J. (2013). Frequency of private spiritual activity and cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women: The Women's Health Initiative. Annals of Epidemiology, 23(5), 239-245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2013.03.002

Frequency of private spiritual activity and cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women : The Women's Health Initiative. / Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Fitchett, George; Hovey, Kathleen M.; Schnall, Eliezer; Thomson, Cynthia; Andrews, Christopher A.; Crawford, Sybil; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Post, Stephen; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Ockene, Judith.

In: Annals of Epidemiology, Vol. 23, No. 5, 01.05.2013, p. 239-245.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Salmoirago-Blotcher, E, Fitchett, G, Hovey, KM, Schnall, E, Thomson, C, Andrews, CA, Crawford, S, O'Sullivan, MJ, Post, S, Chlebowski, RT & Ockene, J 2013, 'Frequency of private spiritual activity and cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women: The Women's Health Initiative', Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 239-245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2013.03.002
Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena ; Fitchett, George ; Hovey, Kathleen M. ; Schnall, Eliezer ; Thomson, Cynthia ; Andrews, Christopher A. ; Crawford, Sybil ; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo ; Post, Stephen ; Chlebowski, Rowan T. ; Ockene, Judith. / Frequency of private spiritual activity and cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women : The Women's Health Initiative. In: Annals of Epidemiology. 2013 ; Vol. 23, No. 5. pp. 239-245.
@article{5fa93c85cdbf4fee849c1a9b13bb1e7f,
title = "Frequency of private spiritual activity and cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women: The Women's Health Initiative",
abstract = "Purpose: Spirituality has been associated with better cardiac autonomic balance, but its association with cardiovascular risk is not well studied. We examined whether more frequent private spiritual activity was associated with reduced cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Methods: Frequency of private spiritual activity (prayer, Bible reading, and meditation) was self-reported at year 5 of follow-up. Cardiovascular outcomes were centrally adjudicated, and cardiovascular risk was estimated from proportional hazards models. Results: Final models included 43,708 women (mean age, 68.9 ± 7.3 years; median follow-up, 7.0 years) free of cardiac disease through year 5 of follow-up. In age-adjusted models, private spiritual activity was associated with increased cardiovascular risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.16; 95{\%} confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.31 for weekly vs. never; HR, 1.25; 95{\%} CI, 1.11-1.40 for daily vs. never). In multivariate models adjusted for demographics, lifestyle, risk factors, and psychosocial factors, such association remained significant only in the group with daily activity (HR, 1.16; 95{\%} CI, 1.03-1.30). Subgroup analyses indicate this association may be driven by the presence of severe chronic diseases. Conclusions: Among aging women, higher frequency of private spiritual activity was associated with increased cardiovascular risk, likely reflecting a mobilization of spiritual resources to cope with aging and illness.",
keywords = "Cardiovascular diseases, Spirituality, Women's health",
author = "Elena Salmoirago-Blotcher and George Fitchett and Hovey, {Kathleen M.} and Eliezer Schnall and Cynthia Thomson and Andrews, {Christopher A.} and Sybil Crawford and O'Sullivan, {Mary Jo} and Stephen Post and Chlebowski, {Rowan T.} and Judith Ockene",
year = "2013",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.annepidem.2013.03.002",
language = "English",
volume = "23",
pages = "239--245",
journal = "Annals of Epidemiology",
issn = "1047-2797",
publisher = "Elsevier Inc.",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Frequency of private spiritual activity and cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women

T2 - The Women's Health Initiative

AU - Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena

AU - Fitchett, George

AU - Hovey, Kathleen M.

AU - Schnall, Eliezer

AU - Thomson, Cynthia

AU - Andrews, Christopher A.

AU - Crawford, Sybil

AU - O'Sullivan, Mary Jo

AU - Post, Stephen

AU - Chlebowski, Rowan T.

AU - Ockene, Judith

PY - 2013/5/1

Y1 - 2013/5/1

N2 - Purpose: Spirituality has been associated with better cardiac autonomic balance, but its association with cardiovascular risk is not well studied. We examined whether more frequent private spiritual activity was associated with reduced cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Methods: Frequency of private spiritual activity (prayer, Bible reading, and meditation) was self-reported at year 5 of follow-up. Cardiovascular outcomes were centrally adjudicated, and cardiovascular risk was estimated from proportional hazards models. Results: Final models included 43,708 women (mean age, 68.9 ± 7.3 years; median follow-up, 7.0 years) free of cardiac disease through year 5 of follow-up. In age-adjusted models, private spiritual activity was associated with increased cardiovascular risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.31 for weekly vs. never; HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.11-1.40 for daily vs. never). In multivariate models adjusted for demographics, lifestyle, risk factors, and psychosocial factors, such association remained significant only in the group with daily activity (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.30). Subgroup analyses indicate this association may be driven by the presence of severe chronic diseases. Conclusions: Among aging women, higher frequency of private spiritual activity was associated with increased cardiovascular risk, likely reflecting a mobilization of spiritual resources to cope with aging and illness.

AB - Purpose: Spirituality has been associated with better cardiac autonomic balance, but its association with cardiovascular risk is not well studied. We examined whether more frequent private spiritual activity was associated with reduced cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Methods: Frequency of private spiritual activity (prayer, Bible reading, and meditation) was self-reported at year 5 of follow-up. Cardiovascular outcomes were centrally adjudicated, and cardiovascular risk was estimated from proportional hazards models. Results: Final models included 43,708 women (mean age, 68.9 ± 7.3 years; median follow-up, 7.0 years) free of cardiac disease through year 5 of follow-up. In age-adjusted models, private spiritual activity was associated with increased cardiovascular risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.31 for weekly vs. never; HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.11-1.40 for daily vs. never). In multivariate models adjusted for demographics, lifestyle, risk factors, and psychosocial factors, such association remained significant only in the group with daily activity (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.30). Subgroup analyses indicate this association may be driven by the presence of severe chronic diseases. Conclusions: Among aging women, higher frequency of private spiritual activity was associated with increased cardiovascular risk, likely reflecting a mobilization of spiritual resources to cope with aging and illness.

KW - Cardiovascular diseases

KW - Spirituality

KW - Women's health

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84876845789&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84876845789&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.annepidem.2013.03.002

DO - 10.1016/j.annepidem.2013.03.002

M3 - Article

C2 - 23621989

AN - SCOPUS:84876845789

VL - 23

SP - 239

EP - 245

JO - Annals of Epidemiology

JF - Annals of Epidemiology

SN - 1047-2797

IS - 5

ER -