Objective: To assess the frequency and clinical characteristics of carriers of previously identified mutations in 6 genes associated with early-onset Parkinson disease (PD) and provide empirical data that can be used to inform genetic counseling. Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Setting: Thirteen movement disorders centers. Patients: Nine hundred fifty-three individuals with early-onset PD defined as age at onset (AAO) younger than 51 years. Participants included 77 and 139 individuals of Hispanic and Jewish ancestry, respectively. Intervention: Mutations in SNCA, PRKN, PINK1, DJ1, LRRK2, and GBA were assessed. A validated family history interview and the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale were administered. Demographic and phenotypic characteristics were compared among groups defined by mutation status. Main Outcome Measure: Mutation carrier frequency stratified by AAO and ethnic background. Results: One hundred fifty-eight (16.6%) participants had mutations, including 64 (6.7%) PRKN, 35 (3.6%) LRRK2 G2019S, 64 (6.7%) GBA, and 1 (0.2%) DJ1. Mutation carriers were more frequent in those with an AAO of 30 years or younger compared with those with AAO between 31 and 50 years (40.6% vs 14.6%, P<.001), in individuals who reported Jewish ancestry (32.4% vs 13.7%, P<.001), and in those reporting a first-degree family history of PD(23.9% vs 15.1%, P=.01). Hispanic individuals were more likely to be PRKN carriers than non-Hispanic individuals (15.6% vs 5.9%, P=.003). The GBA L444P mutation was associated with a higher mean Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale III score after adjustment for covariates. Conclusion: Individuals of Jewish or Hispanic ancestry with early-onset PD, those with AAO of 30 years or younger, and those with a history of PD in a first-degree relative may benefit from genetic counseling.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
- Clinical Neurology