Frequency and risk factors associated with dry eye in patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico City

Jaime D. Martinez, Anat Galor, Nallely Ramos-Betancourt, Andrés Lisker-Cervantes, Francisco Beltrán, Jorge Ozorno-Zárate, Valeria Sánchez-Huerta, Marco Antonio Torres-Vera, Everardo Hernández-Quintela

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain the frequency and risk factors of dry eye (DE) among patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico. Methods: Approximately 338 consecutive new patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico City underwent an ocular surface examination, which included tear film break-up time, fluorescein corneal staining, Schirmer’s test, and evaluation of meibum quality. Symptoms of DE were evaluated by the Ocular Surface Disease Index and Dry Eye Questionnaire-5. Information on demographics, exposures, past medical and ocular history, and medications was also collected. Results: The frequency of severe DE symptoms was found to be 43% based on the Ocular Surface Disease Index and 30% based on Dry Eye Questionnaire-5. Risk factors significantly associated with increased DE symptoms included dry mouth and gastrointestinal ulcer medications. With regard to signs, aqueous tear deficiency was a less-frequent finding (22%) in our population than evaporative deficiency (94%). Risk factors associated with aqueous tear deficiency were dry mouth and diuretic use. No risk factors were associated with evaporative deficiency. Risk factors associated with meibomian gland dysfunction included old age, male sex, arthritis, and use of an antihypertensive. The only risk factor associated with corneal staining was dry mouth. Conclusion: This is the first study to demonstrate the frequency of symptomatic and clinical DE in a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico. The frequency of DE ranged from 30% using a symptomatic definition to 94% using objective measures. Different risk factors were found for different aspects of DE, suggesting differing underlying pathophysiologies behind different DE subtypes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1335-1342
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Ophthalmology
Volume10
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 21 2016

Keywords

  • Dry eye
  • Meibomian gland dysfunction
  • Ocular surface disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

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    Martinez, J. D., Galor, A., Ramos-Betancourt, N., Lisker-Cervantes, A., Beltrán, F., Ozorno-Zárate, J., Sánchez-Huerta, V., Torres-Vera, M. A., & Hernández-Quintela, E. (2016). Frequency and risk factors associated with dry eye in patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico City. Clinical Ophthalmology, 10, 1335-1342. https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S106451