Foundations in Spinal Endoscopy

Ibrahim Hussain, Michael L.J. Apuzzo, Michael Y. Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Spinal endoscopy has revolutionized the way spine surgeons deliver minimally invasive care for appropriately selected patients. The evolution of endoscopy has been tumultuous since its beginnings as a “blind” percutaneous procedure to access the disk until the present state, in which complex decompressions and even fusions can be accomplished through subcentimeter incisions. Engineering has played a crucial role in this evolution with advances in optics, illumination, and instrumentation that have allowed surgeons to work safely and efficiently in smaller and smaller corridors. Finally, the adaptation of enhanced recovery after surgery protocols have complemented the benefits offered by spinal endoscopy to help patients return to the quality of life they seek through surgical intervention. In this article, we explore foundational elements of spinal endoscopy and look ahead to the future of this maturing field.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)125-131
Number of pages7
JournalWorld neurosurgery
StatePublished - Apr 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • ERAS
  • Endoscopic spine surgery
  • Enhanced recovery after surgery
  • Fast-track surgery
  • Spinal endoscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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