Focal upper extremity neuropathies are common in neonates. The brachial plexus is the most common site involved. Brachial plexus injuries may involve different structures, thus producing different clinical presentations: complete brachial plexus palsy, Duchenne-Erb palsy, upper-middle trunk brachial plexus palsy, Klumpke palsy, fascicular brachial plexus palsy, and bilateral brachial plexus palsy. The causes of brachial plexus palsy are obstetric injury, intrauterine compression, humeral osteomyelitis, hemangioma, exostosis of the first rib, neck compression, and neoplasm. The differential diagnosis of brachial plexus palsy includes pseudoparesis, amyoplasia congenita, congenita varicella syndrome, and neurological lesions at other neuroanatomical levels. The cause and the degree of injury dictate the prognosis. The prognosis of obstetric brachial plexus injury is usually good. Copyright (C) 2000 by W.B. Saunders Company.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Clinical Neurology