Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most commonly encountered bacterial infections. Acute uncomplicated UTIs in adults include episodes of cystitis and pyelonephritis. The main uropathogens causing uncomplicated UTIs have, in the past, been fairly predictable and they have generally been susceptible to several commonly used oral antimicrobials. There has been a trend, however, towards increasing antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens over the past few years, especially to beta-lactams and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX). The current standard of therapy for the empiric treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis is TMP-SMX for 3 days. Since the prevalence of resistance to TMP-SMX among uropathogens is increasing, however, fluoroquinolones, with their low side effect profile, convenient pharmacokinetics and effectiveness, are increasingly being used first-line for the management of cystitis. Treatment of acute pyelonephritis is less controversial and fluoroquinolones are recommended as first-line agents in the empiric treatment of community-acquired pyelonephritis. Of concern, the increased use of fluoroquinolones for the treatment of UTIs and other infectious processes has resulted in an increasing prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant uropathogens worldwide. In light of these changing resistance patterns, prudent use of fluoroquinolones for the treatment of UTIs is warranted.
- Cefpodoxime proxetil
- Urinary tract infection
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)