Flow cytometric monitoring of hormone receptor expression in human solid tumors

Awtar Krishan

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


Hormone receptor expression in human breast and prostate tumors is of diagnostic and therapeutic importance. With the availability of anti-estrogen, androgen and progesterone antibodies, immunohistochemistry has become a standard tool for determination of receptor expression in human tumor biopsies. However, this method is dependent on examination of a small number of cells under a microscope and the data obtained in most cases is not quantitative. As most of the commercially used anti-hormone antibodies have nuclear specificity, we have developed methods for isolation and antigen unmasking of nuclei from formalin fixed/paraffin embedded archival human tumors. After immunostaining with the antibodies and propidium iodide (for DNA content and cell cycle analysis), nuclei are analyzed by multiparametric laser flow cytometry for hormone receptor expression, DNA content, aneuploidy and cell cycle determination. These multiparametric methods are especially important for retrospective studies seeking to correlate hormone receptor expression with clinical response to anti-hormonal therapy of human breast and prostate tumors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)211-217
Number of pages7
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - Jan 1 2002
EventOptical Diagnostics of Living Cells V - San Jose, CA, United States
Duration: Jan 23 2002Jan 25 2002


  • Androgen
  • Estrogen
  • Flow cytometry
  • Hormone receptors
  • Progesterone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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