We previously showed that palmitic acid methyl ester (PAME) and stearic acid methyl ester (SAME) are simultaneously released from the sympathetic ganglion and PAME possesses potent vasodilatory properties which may be important in cerebral ischemia. Since PAME is a potent vasodilator simultaneously released with SAME, our hypothesis was that PAME/SAME confers neuroprotection in rat models of focal/global cerebral ischemia. We also examined the neuroprotective properties of Solutol HS15, a clinically approved excipient because it possesses similar fatty acid compositions as PAME/SAME. Asphyxial cardiac arrest (ACA, 6 min) was performed 30 min after PAME/SAME treatment (0.02 mg/kg, IV). Solutol HS15 (2 ml/kg, IP) was injected chronically for 14 days (once daily). Histopathology of hippocampal CA1 neurons was assessed 7 days after ACA. For focal ischemia experiments, PAME, SAME, or Solutol HS15 was administered following reperfusion after 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium staining of the brain was performed 24 h after MCAO and the infarct volume was quantified. Following ACA, the number of surviving hippocampal neurons was enhanced by PAME-treated (68 %), SAME-treated (69 %), and Solutol-treated HS15 (68 %) rats as compared to ACA only-treated groups. Infarct volume was decreased by PAME (83 %), SAME (68 %), and Solutol HS15 (78 %) as compared to saline (vehicle) in MCAO-treated animals. PAME, SAME, and Solutol HS15 provide robust neuroprotection in both paradigms of ischemia. This may prove therapeutically beneficial since Solutol HS15 is already administered as a solublizing agent to patients. With proper timing and dosage, administration of Solutol HS15 and PAME/SAME can be an effective therapy against cerebral ischemia.
- Asphyxial cardiac arrest
- Middle cerebral artery occlusion
- Palmitic acid methyl ester
- Stearic acid methyl ester
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine