We describe an outbreak of deaths from cocaine-induced excited delirium (EDDs) in Dade County, Florida between 1979 and 1990. From a registry of all cocaine-related deaths in Dade County, Florida, from 1969-1990, 58 EDDs were compared with 125 victims of accidental cocaine overdose without excited delirium. Compared with controls, EDDs were more frequently black, male, and younger. They were less likely to have a low body mass index, and more likely to have died in police custody, to have received medical treatment immediately before death, to have survived for a longer period, to have developed hyperthermia, and to have died in summer months. EDDs had concentrations of cocaine and benzoylecgonine in autopsy blood that were similar to those for controls. The epidemiologic findings are most consistent with the hypothesis that chronic cocaine use disrupts dopaminergic function and, when coupled with recent cocaine use, may precipitate agitation, delirium, aberrant thermoregulation, rhabdomyolysis, and sudden death.
- excited delirium
- forensic science
- neuroleptic malignant syndrome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (miscellaneous)