Factors limiting fruit and seed production of a temperate shrub, Staphylea trifolia L. ( Staphyleaceae).

N. C. Garwood, C. C. Horvitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Staphylea trifolia is a self-incompatible temperate woodland shrub that flowers in May in Illinois. Number of fruits set and matured per flower and per infloresence in open-pollinated treatment was limited by the number of flowers naturally cross-pollinated. In hand-cross-pollinated inflorescences, fruit set was not limited by resources even though fruit set was 10 times greater than in the open-pollinated treatment. Evidence that resources limited fruit maturation in the hand-cross-pollinated inflorescences was equivocal. In hand-cross-pollinated flowers, fruit set was lowest cold nights followed pollination, suggesting that cool temperatures limited postpollination physiological processes. Early-flowering individuals matured fewer fruits than later-flowering individuals. Within the latter group, fruit production increased with plant size, although a relatively small individual matured the maximum number of fruits. Flowering phenologies and size of individuals varied among patches, resulting in differential reproductive success of patches.-from Authors

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)453-466
Number of pages14
JournalAmerican journal of botany
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 1985
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Genetics
  • Plant Science


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