Eyelid: Conjunctival müller's muscle resection (CMMR)

Andrew Rong, Benjamin Erickson, Wendy Lee

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


In patients presenting with ptosis, a complete exam, including eyelid measurements before and after instillation of 2.5 % phenylephrine, is integral in determining the optimal surgical procedure. Müller's muscle is a sympathetically innervated smooth muscle capable of elevating the upper eyelid 2-3 mm under certain physiological conditions. Instillation of phenylephrine drops in the superior fornix will stimulate Müller's muscle in many patients; those with mild to moderate ptosis who respond following instillation of phenylephrine may be suitable candidates for a conjunctival Müller's muscle resection (CMMR). Patients should be educated about the risks and benefits of the procedure, including alternatives.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationOperative Dictations in Ophthalmology
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages3
ISBN (Electronic)9783319454955
ISBN (Print)9783319454948
StatePublished - Apr 24 2017


  • CMMR
  • Conjunctiva
  • Conjunctival müller's muscle resection
  • Müller's muscle
  • Ptosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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