In patients presenting with ptosis, a complete exam, including eyelid measurements before and after instillation of 2.5 % phenylephrine, is integral in determining the optimal surgical procedure. Müller's muscle is a sympathetically innervated smooth muscle capable of elevating the upper eyelid 2-3 mm under certain physiological conditions. Instillation of phenylephrine drops in the superior fornix will stimulate Müller's muscle in many patients; those with mild to moderate ptosis who respond following instillation of phenylephrine may be suitable candidates for a conjunctival Müller's muscle resection (CMMR). Patients should be educated about the risks and benefits of the procedure, including alternatives.
- Conjunctival müller's muscle resection
- Müller's muscle
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