By using pharmacological tools, the biological actions of adenosine (ADO) were manipulated in rat intestine that had been rendered ischemic for 5 or 15 minutes and reperfused for 1 or 24 hours. With 100 μM ADO topically administered for 30 minutes after ischemia and then washed out, intestinal arteriolar blood flow (BF) and tissue ATP were restored to preocclusion levels, and histological damage was minimal after 1 hour of reperfusion. For comparison, with vehicle treatment after ischemia, BF was reduced by 50%, tissue ATP was reduced by 50%, myeloperoxidase levels in the intestine and lung were increased at least twofold, and mucosal villi were shortened and thickened after 1 hour of reperfusion. Furthermore, with vehicle treatment, both baseline BF and reactivity to endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine) and endothelium-independent (2-chloroadenosine) vasodilators were significantly depressed after 24 hours of reperfusion. In contrast, with ADO, baseline BF remained near normal, and vascular reactivity to 2-chloroadenosine and acetylcholine was preserved after 24 hours. The salutary effect of ADO on BF was reduced by simultaneous application of the antagonist 8-phenyltheophylline or the cellular uptake inhibitor dipyridamole. The nonmetabolized agonist 2-chloroadenosine, the purine precursor aminoimidazole carboxamide riboside, or dipyridamole alone all had favorable effects relative to the vehicle, but all were less potent than ADO. The conclusions are as follows: 1) Endogenous ADO modulates the inflammatory response evoked by intestinal reperfusion because aminoimidazole carboxamide riboside or dipyridamole, which increases its availability, generally had favorable effects, whereas 8-phenyltheophylline tended to have opposite effects. 2) Exogenous ADO arrests most of the inflammatory changes associated with reperfusion by mechanisms that include both extracellular (e.g., receptor-mediated vasodilation and granulocyte inhibition) and intracellular (e.g., restoration of ATP) actions. 3) The effectiveness of ADO-related compounds even when administered after ischemia attests to the practicality of salvaging ischemic bowel, at least in some conditions.
- Aminoimidazole carboxamide riboside
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine