Expression of stress response protein Grp78 is associated with the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer

Llana Pootrakul, Ram Datar, Shan Rong Shi, Jie Cai, Debra Hawes, Susan G. Groshen, Amy S. Lee, Richard J Cote

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: Induction of molecular chaperone Grp78 (78-kDa glucose-regulated protein) occurs in stress conditions that often characterize tumor microenvironments. We investigated the role of Grp78 in prostate cancer progression and the development of castration resistance, where cancer cells continue to survive despite the stress of an androgen-starved environment. Experimental Design: Immunohistochemistry was done to examine Grp78 expression in 219 prostate cancers from patients with pathologic stage T3N 0M0 disease [androgen ablation naive (untreated) and androgen ablation exposed (treated)] and castration-resistant prostate cancer. Classification of tumors was based on intensity of Grp78 cytoplasmic immunoreactivity and percentage of immunoreactive tumor cells. The associations of Grp78 expression with prostate cancer recurrence (clinical and/or serum prostate-specific antigen) and survival were examined in the untreated stage T3N0M0 group. Grp78 expression was also analyzed in the androgen-dependent LNCaP and castration-resistant C42B cell lines. Results: The percentage of tumor cells expressing Grp78 was strongly associated with castration-resistant status (P = 0.005). Increased Grp78 expression was consistently associated with greater risk of prostate cancer recurrence and worse overall survival in patients who had not undergone prior hormonal manipulation. Grp78 expression was also increased in the castration-resistant LNCaP-derived cell line C42B and in LNCaP cells grown in androgen-deprived conditions compared with LNCaP cells grown in androgen-rich media. Conclusion: Our findings show that up-regulation of Grp78 is associated with the development of castration resistance, possibly in part by augmenting cell survival as previously suggested, and may serve as an important prognostic indicator of recurrence in a subset of patients with T3N 0M0 disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5987-5993
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Cancer Research
Volume12
Issue number20 PART 1
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 15 2006
Externally publishedYes

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Castration
Heat-Shock Proteins
Androgens
Prostatic Neoplasms
Recurrence
Neoplasms
Cell Line
Molecular Chaperones
Tumor Microenvironment
Survival
Prostate-Specific Antigen
Cell Survival
Research Design
Up-Regulation
Immunohistochemistry
Serum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

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Expression of stress response protein Grp78 is associated with the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer. / Pootrakul, Llana; Datar, Ram; Shi, Shan Rong; Cai, Jie; Hawes, Debra; Groshen, Susan G.; Lee, Amy S.; Cote, Richard J.

In: Clinical Cancer Research, Vol. 12, No. 20 PART 1, 15.10.2006, p. 5987-5993.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pootrakul, Llana ; Datar, Ram ; Shi, Shan Rong ; Cai, Jie ; Hawes, Debra ; Groshen, Susan G. ; Lee, Amy S. ; Cote, Richard J. / Expression of stress response protein Grp78 is associated with the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer. In: Clinical Cancer Research. 2006 ; Vol. 12, No. 20 PART 1. pp. 5987-5993.
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abstract = "Background: Induction of molecular chaperone Grp78 (78-kDa glucose-regulated protein) occurs in stress conditions that often characterize tumor microenvironments. We investigated the role of Grp78 in prostate cancer progression and the development of castration resistance, where cancer cells continue to survive despite the stress of an androgen-starved environment. Experimental Design: Immunohistochemistry was done to examine Grp78 expression in 219 prostate cancers from patients with pathologic stage T3N 0M0 disease [androgen ablation naive (untreated) and androgen ablation exposed (treated)] and castration-resistant prostate cancer. Classification of tumors was based on intensity of Grp78 cytoplasmic immunoreactivity and percentage of immunoreactive tumor cells. The associations of Grp78 expression with prostate cancer recurrence (clinical and/or serum prostate-specific antigen) and survival were examined in the untreated stage T3N0M0 group. Grp78 expression was also analyzed in the androgen-dependent LNCaP and castration-resistant C42B cell lines. Results: The percentage of tumor cells expressing Grp78 was strongly associated with castration-resistant status (P = 0.005). Increased Grp78 expression was consistently associated with greater risk of prostate cancer recurrence and worse overall survival in patients who had not undergone prior hormonal manipulation. Grp78 expression was also increased in the castration-resistant LNCaP-derived cell line C42B and in LNCaP cells grown in androgen-deprived conditions compared with LNCaP cells grown in androgen-rich media. Conclusion: Our findings show that up-regulation of Grp78 is associated with the development of castration resistance, possibly in part by augmenting cell survival as previously suggested, and may serve as an important prognostic indicator of recurrence in a subset of patients with T3N 0M0 disease.",
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T1 - Expression of stress response protein Grp78 is associated with the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer

AU - Pootrakul, Llana

AU - Datar, Ram

AU - Shi, Shan Rong

AU - Cai, Jie

AU - Hawes, Debra

AU - Groshen, Susan G.

AU - Lee, Amy S.

AU - Cote, Richard J

PY - 2006/10/15

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N2 - Background: Induction of molecular chaperone Grp78 (78-kDa glucose-regulated protein) occurs in stress conditions that often characterize tumor microenvironments. We investigated the role of Grp78 in prostate cancer progression and the development of castration resistance, where cancer cells continue to survive despite the stress of an androgen-starved environment. Experimental Design: Immunohistochemistry was done to examine Grp78 expression in 219 prostate cancers from patients with pathologic stage T3N 0M0 disease [androgen ablation naive (untreated) and androgen ablation exposed (treated)] and castration-resistant prostate cancer. Classification of tumors was based on intensity of Grp78 cytoplasmic immunoreactivity and percentage of immunoreactive tumor cells. The associations of Grp78 expression with prostate cancer recurrence (clinical and/or serum prostate-specific antigen) and survival were examined in the untreated stage T3N0M0 group. Grp78 expression was also analyzed in the androgen-dependent LNCaP and castration-resistant C42B cell lines. Results: The percentage of tumor cells expressing Grp78 was strongly associated with castration-resistant status (P = 0.005). Increased Grp78 expression was consistently associated with greater risk of prostate cancer recurrence and worse overall survival in patients who had not undergone prior hormonal manipulation. Grp78 expression was also increased in the castration-resistant LNCaP-derived cell line C42B and in LNCaP cells grown in androgen-deprived conditions compared with LNCaP cells grown in androgen-rich media. Conclusion: Our findings show that up-regulation of Grp78 is associated with the development of castration resistance, possibly in part by augmenting cell survival as previously suggested, and may serve as an important prognostic indicator of recurrence in a subset of patients with T3N 0M0 disease.

AB - Background: Induction of molecular chaperone Grp78 (78-kDa glucose-regulated protein) occurs in stress conditions that often characterize tumor microenvironments. We investigated the role of Grp78 in prostate cancer progression and the development of castration resistance, where cancer cells continue to survive despite the stress of an androgen-starved environment. Experimental Design: Immunohistochemistry was done to examine Grp78 expression in 219 prostate cancers from patients with pathologic stage T3N 0M0 disease [androgen ablation naive (untreated) and androgen ablation exposed (treated)] and castration-resistant prostate cancer. Classification of tumors was based on intensity of Grp78 cytoplasmic immunoreactivity and percentage of immunoreactive tumor cells. The associations of Grp78 expression with prostate cancer recurrence (clinical and/or serum prostate-specific antigen) and survival were examined in the untreated stage T3N0M0 group. Grp78 expression was also analyzed in the androgen-dependent LNCaP and castration-resistant C42B cell lines. Results: The percentage of tumor cells expressing Grp78 was strongly associated with castration-resistant status (P = 0.005). Increased Grp78 expression was consistently associated with greater risk of prostate cancer recurrence and worse overall survival in patients who had not undergone prior hormonal manipulation. Grp78 expression was also increased in the castration-resistant LNCaP-derived cell line C42B and in LNCaP cells grown in androgen-deprived conditions compared with LNCaP cells grown in androgen-rich media. Conclusion: Our findings show that up-regulation of Grp78 is associated with the development of castration resistance, possibly in part by augmenting cell survival as previously suggested, and may serve as an important prognostic indicator of recurrence in a subset of patients with T3N 0M0 disease.

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