Expression of non-protein-coding antisense RNAs in genomic regions related to autism spectrum disorders

Dmitry Velmeshev, Marco Magistri, Mohammad Ali Faghihi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

33 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) manifest with neurodevelopmental phenotypes including communicative, social and behavioral impairments that affect as many as 1 in 88 children. The majority of autism cases have no known genetic cause, suggesting complex genetics of the disorder, but a few genes of large effect have been identified. Methods. In order to identify novel ASD genetic correlates, we investigated non-protein coding RNAs (ncRNAs) which are abundantly transcribed from the human genome, enriched in the brain, and have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. Using an algorithm that we developed, we examined a publicly available transcriptomics database, AceView, to identify the natural antisense transcripts (NATs) that overlap with known autism-related genes. We validated the presence and differential expression of NATs in different brain regions of ASD and control brains using qRT-PCR. Additionally, we investigated the subcellular localization of these transcripts in a neuronal cell line using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Results: We found noncoding antisense RNA transcripts at approximately 40% of loci previously implicated in ASD. We confirmed the expression of 10 antisense RNAs in different postmortem human brain tissues. The expression of five antisense transcripts was found to be region-specific, suggesting a role for these ncRNAs in the development and function of specific brain regions. Some antisense RNAs overlapping suspected ASD genes exhibited concordant expression relative to their sense protein-coding genes, while other sense-antisense pairs demonstrate a discordant relationship. Interestingly, the antisense RNA corresponding to the SYNGAP1 locus (SYNGAP1-AS) was found to be differentially expressed in brain regions of patients with ASD compared to control individuals. RNA-seq analysis of subcellular compartments from SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells demonstrated that antisense RNAs to ASD candidate genes are predominantly expressed in the nucleoplasmic or chromatin compartments, implying their involvement in nuclear-associated processes. Conclusions: Our data suggests that NATs are abundantly expressed from ASD-related loci and provide evidence for their roles in target gene regulation, neurodevelopment and autism pathogenesis. This class of RNA should therefore be considered in functional studies aimed at understanding genetic risk factors for ASD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number32
JournalMolecular Autism
Volume4
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2013

Keywords

  • ASDs
  • Autism
  • Epigenetics
  • lncRNAs
  • NATs
  • ncRNAs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Developmental Biology
  • Molecular Biology

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