The aim of this article is to critically review the literature on expressed emotion (EE), communication deviance (CD), and culture in families of patients with schizophrenia. There is growing evidence that EE and CD are highly linked. Yet the two constructs together predict the development of schizophrenia and the associated symptoms better than either construct alone. In this article, the authors review data indicating that both the expression and the levels of high EE and CD vary by ethnicity. It may be especially difficult for family members to communicate coherently and in a less critical manner when focusing on patients' inability to sustain particular cultural norms and values that are endorsed by their family and ethnic background. The authors propose that more attention to the role of culture in EE and CD and greater focus on the proper assessment of these variables would further enhance our understanding of these constructs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Social Psychology
- Sociology and Political Science