Exposure-related, global alterations in innate and adaptive immunity; a consideration for re-use of non-human primates in research

François A. Bates, Elizabeth H. Duncan, Monika Simmons, Tanisha Robinson, Sridhar Samineni, Natasa Strbo, Eileen Villasante, Elke Bergmann-Leitner, Wathsala Wijayalath

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background. Non-human primates (NHPs) play an important role in biomedical research, where they are often being re-used in multiple research studies over the course of their life-time. Researchers employ various study-specific screening criteria to reduce potential variables associated with subsequent re-use of NHPs. However, criteria set for NHPre-assignments largely neglect the impact of previous exposures on overall biology. Since the immune system is a key determinant of overall biological outcome, an altered biological state could be predicted by monitoring global changes in the immune profile. We postulate that every different exposure or a condition can generate a unique global immune profile in NHPs. Methods. Changes in the global immune profile were evaluated in three different groups of rhesus macaques previously enrolled in dengue or malaria vaccine studies over six months after their last exposure. Naïve animals served as the baseline. Fresh blood samples were stained with various immune cell surface markers and analyzed by multicolor flow-cytometry to study immune cell dynamics in the peripheral blood. Serum cytokine profile in the pre-exposed animals were analyzed by mesoscale assay using a customized U-PLEX NHP biomarker panel of 12 cytokines/chemokines. Results. Pre-exposed macaques showed altered dynamics in circulating cytokines and certain innate and adaptive immune cell subsets such as monocytes, HLA-DR+NKT cells, B cells and T cells. Some of these changes were transient, while some lasted for more than six months. Each group seemed to develop a global immune profile unique to their particular exposure. Conclusion. Our data strongly suggest that re-used NHPs should be evaluated for longterm, overall immunological changes and randomly assigned to new studies to avoid study bias.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number10955
StatePublished - Mar 8 2021


  • Cytokines
  • Global immune profile
  • Infectious diseases
  • Innate and adaptive immunity
  • Non-human primates (NHPs)
  • Re-use of NHPs in research
  • Trained immunity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)


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