Purpose: This study aims to describe human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related knowledge and beliefs, as well as understanding attitudes towards masculinity in the context of HIV prevention, held among Chilean men. Design: This study reports the qualitative findings of a sequential qualitative-quantitative mixed methodology study: Bringing men into HIV Prevention in Chile, NIH R01 TW007674-03. Methods: Twenty in-depth interviews using a qualitative, descriptive approach to elicit information for the study were conducted among men residing in two communities of low socio-economic status in Santiago, Chile. Findings: Content analysis of interviews revealed three main themes regarding machismo and how it relates to HIV: sexuality and machismo, the changing nature of machismo, and violence against women. Conclusions: Addressing HIV and intimate partner violence through developing education programs tailored to meet the needs of Chilean men are needed to include men in HIV prevention efforts. Clinical Relevance: Specifically, incorporating ideas of what men consider healthy masculinity and working to destigmatize men who have sex with men are important steps in addressing the negative aspects of machismo.
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