Exploring the diagnostic potential of immune biomarker coexpression in gulf war illness

Gordon Broderick, Mary Ann Fletcher, Michael Gallagher, Zachary Barnes, Suzanne D. Vernon, Nancy G. Klimas

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

10 Scopus citations


Complex disorders like Gulf War Illness (GWI) often defy diagnosis on the basis of a single biomarker and may only be distinguishable by considering the coexpression of multiple markers measured in response to a challenge. We demonstrate the practical application of such an approach using an example where blood was collected from 26 GWI, 13 healthy control subjects, and 9 unhealthy controls with Chronic Fatigue at three points during a graded exercise challenge. A 3-way multivariate projection model based on 12 markers of endocrine and immune function was constructed using a training set of n = 10 GWI and n = 11 healthy controls. These groups were separated almost completely on the basis of two coexpression patterns. In a separate test set these same features allowed for discrimination of new GWI subjects (n = 16) from unhealthy (n = 9) and healthy control subjects with a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 90%.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMethods in Molecular Biology
Number of pages20
StatePublished - Nov 16 2012
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)10643745



  • Batch partial least squares
  • Coexpression patterns
  • Cytokine profile
  • Diagnostic classification
  • Exercise response
  • Gulf War Illness
  • Partial least squares
  • Regression model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics

Cite this

Broderick, G., Fletcher, M. A., Gallagher, M., Barnes, Z., Vernon, S. D., & Klimas, N. G. (2012). Exploring the diagnostic potential of immune biomarker coexpression in gulf war illness. In Methods in Molecular Biology (Vol. 934, pp. 145-164). (Methods in Molecular Biology; Vol. 934). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-62703-071-7_8