Tissue engineering has been proposed as a strategy for urethral reconstruction. This may involve matrices alone, wherein the body's natural ability to regenerate is used to orient or direct new tissue growth, or the use of matrices with cells. Acellular collagen matrices derived from donor bladder submucosa have been used both experimentally and clinically for onlay urethral replacement with good success at our center. If a tubularized urethral repair is needed, the use of cells on the collagen matrix is essential for adequate tissue formation. Tissue engineering techniques are useful for urethral reconstruction.
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