Executive Functioning in Children and Adolescents With Perinatal HIV Infection

Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Perinatal HIV (PHIV) infection may place youth at risk for impairments in executive functioning (EF). We examined associations of EF with HIV infection, disease severity and other factors among youth with PHIV and perinatally HIV-exposed, uninfected youth (PHEU). Methods: Within the US-based Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study, 354 PHIV and 200 PHEU youth completed a standardized EF measure (Children's Color Trails Test, CCTT) and youth and/or caregivers completed a questionnaire measuring everyday EF (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, BRIEF). Covariates included HIV status, current and historical disease severity, demographic and caregiver variables and other cognitive measures. Analyses used linear and logistic regression and proportional odds models. Results: No significant HIV status group differences were found on CCTT scores. Caregiver BRIEF ratings indicated significantly fewer problems for PHIV than PHEU youth. However, PHIV youth with past encephalopathy self-endorsed significantly greater metacognitive (ie, cognitive regulation) problems on the BRIEF and performed more slowly on the CCTT than PHEU youth. CCTT and caregiver BRIEF scores had significant associations with indicators of past and present disease severity. Both PHIV and PHEU had significantly worse scores than population means on CCTT and BRIEF; scores had significant associations with demographic covariates. Conclusions: Youth with PHIV show EF problems likely associated with risk factors other than HIV. However, cognitive slowing and self-reported metacognitive problems were evident in PHIV youth with a history of encephalopathy. Assessment and treatment of EF impairment may be important to identifying PHIV youth at particular risk for poor health and behavioral outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)969-975
Number of pages7
JournalPediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Volume34
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 26 2015

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HIV Infections
HIV
Executive Function
Color
Caregivers
Equipment and Supplies
Brain Diseases
Demography
Linear Models
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Cohort Studies

Keywords

  • adolescents
  • children
  • executive functioning
  • HIV
  • perinatal HIV exposure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Microbiology (medical)

Cite this

Executive Functioning in Children and Adolescents With Perinatal HIV Infection. / Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study.

In: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, Vol. 34, No. 9, 26.09.2015, p. 969-975.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. / Executive Functioning in Children and Adolescents With Perinatal HIV Infection. In: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 2015 ; Vol. 34, No. 9. pp. 969-975.
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abstract = "Background: Perinatal HIV (PHIV) infection may place youth at risk for impairments in executive functioning (EF). We examined associations of EF with HIV infection, disease severity and other factors among youth with PHIV and perinatally HIV-exposed, uninfected youth (PHEU). Methods: Within the US-based Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study, 354 PHIV and 200 PHEU youth completed a standardized EF measure (Children's Color Trails Test, CCTT) and youth and/or caregivers completed a questionnaire measuring everyday EF (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, BRIEF). Covariates included HIV status, current and historical disease severity, demographic and caregiver variables and other cognitive measures. Analyses used linear and logistic regression and proportional odds models. Results: No significant HIV status group differences were found on CCTT scores. Caregiver BRIEF ratings indicated significantly fewer problems for PHIV than PHEU youth. However, PHIV youth with past encephalopathy self-endorsed significantly greater metacognitive (ie, cognitive regulation) problems on the BRIEF and performed more slowly on the CCTT than PHEU youth. CCTT and caregiver BRIEF scores had significant associations with indicators of past and present disease severity. Both PHIV and PHEU had significantly worse scores than population means on CCTT and BRIEF; scores had significant associations with demographic covariates. Conclusions: Youth with PHIV show EF problems likely associated with risk factors other than HIV. However, cognitive slowing and self-reported metacognitive problems were evident in PHIV youth with a history of encephalopathy. Assessment and treatment of EF impairment may be important to identifying PHIV youth at particular risk for poor health and behavioral outcomes.",
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AU - Hunter, Scott J.

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AU - Kammerer, Betsy L.

AU - Wilkins, Megan L.

AU - Rutstein, Richard

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AU - Sanders, Margaret Ann

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AU - Paul, Mary

AU - Cooper, Norma

AU - Harris, Lynnette

AU - Purswani, Murli

AU - Baig, Mahboobullah

AU - Cintron, Anna

AU - Puga, Ana

AU - Navarro, Sandra

AU - Blood, James

AU - Burchett, Sandra

AU - Karthas, Nancy

AU - Wiznia, Andrew

AU - Burey, Marlene

AU - Nozyce, Molly

AU - Dieudonne, Arry

AU - Bettica, Linda

AU - Adubato, Susan

AU - Chen, Janet

AU - Bulkley, Maria Garcia

AU - Ivey, Latreaca

AU - Grant, Mitzie

AU - Knapp, Katherine

AU - Allison, Kim

AU - Acevedo-Flores, Midnela

AU - Rios, Heida

AU - Olivera, Vivian

AU - Silio, Margarita

AU - Jones, Medea

AU - Sirois, Patricia

AU - Spector, Stephen

AU - Norris, Kim

AU - McFarland, Elizabeth

AU - Katai, Alisa

AU - Dunn, Jennifer

AU - Scott, Gwendolyn B

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KW - children

KW - executive functioning

KW - HIV

KW - perinatal HIV exposure

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