Examining HPV Threat-to-Efficacy Ratios in the Extended Parallel Process Model

Nick Carcioppolo, Jakob D. Jensen, Steven R. Wilson, W. Bart Collins, Melissa Carrion, Georgiann Linnemeier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) posits that an effective fear appeal includes both threat and efficacy components; however, research has not addressed whether there is an optimal threat-to-efficacy ratio. It is possible that varying levels of threat and efficacy in a persuasive message could yield different effects on attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. In a laboratory experiment, women (n = 442) were exposed to human papilloma virus (HPV) prevention messages containing one of six threat-to-efficacy ratios and one of two message frames (messages emphasizing the connection between HPV and cervical cancer or HPV and genital warts). Multiple mediation analysis revealed that a 1-to-1 ratio of threat to efficacy was most effective at increasing prevention intentions, primarily because it caused more fear and risk susceptibility than other message ratios. Response efficacy significantly mediated the relationship between message framing and intentions, such that participants exposed to a genital warts message reported significantly higher intentions, and this association can be explained in part through response efficacy. Implications for future theoretical research as well as campaigns and intervention research are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)20-28
Number of pages9
JournalHealth Communication
Volume28
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Papillomaviridae
Viruses
Condylomata Acuminata
threat
Fear
Research
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
anxiety
laboratory experiment
mediation
appeal
cancer
campaign
Experiments

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Communication

Cite this

Examining HPV Threat-to-Efficacy Ratios in the Extended Parallel Process Model. / Carcioppolo, Nick; Jensen, Jakob D.; Wilson, Steven R.; Collins, W. Bart; Carrion, Melissa; Linnemeier, Georgiann.

In: Health Communication, Vol. 28, No. 1, 01.2013, p. 20-28.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Carcioppolo, N, Jensen, JD, Wilson, SR, Collins, WB, Carrion, M & Linnemeier, G 2013, 'Examining HPV Threat-to-Efficacy Ratios in the Extended Parallel Process Model', Health Communication, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 20-28. https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2012.719478
Carcioppolo, Nick ; Jensen, Jakob D. ; Wilson, Steven R. ; Collins, W. Bart ; Carrion, Melissa ; Linnemeier, Georgiann. / Examining HPV Threat-to-Efficacy Ratios in the Extended Parallel Process Model. In: Health Communication. 2013 ; Vol. 28, No. 1. pp. 20-28.
@article{145b6ee1daef4542bd8df9e85fd0c80f,
title = "Examining HPV Threat-to-Efficacy Ratios in the Extended Parallel Process Model",
abstract = "The Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) posits that an effective fear appeal includes both threat and efficacy components; however, research has not addressed whether there is an optimal threat-to-efficacy ratio. It is possible that varying levels of threat and efficacy in a persuasive message could yield different effects on attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. In a laboratory experiment, women (n = 442) were exposed to human papilloma virus (HPV) prevention messages containing one of six threat-to-efficacy ratios and one of two message frames (messages emphasizing the connection between HPV and cervical cancer or HPV and genital warts). Multiple mediation analysis revealed that a 1-to-1 ratio of threat to efficacy was most effective at increasing prevention intentions, primarily because it caused more fear and risk susceptibility than other message ratios. Response efficacy significantly mediated the relationship between message framing and intentions, such that participants exposed to a genital warts message reported significantly higher intentions, and this association can be explained in part through response efficacy. Implications for future theoretical research as well as campaigns and intervention research are discussed.",
author = "Nick Carcioppolo and Jensen, {Jakob D.} and Wilson, {Steven R.} and Collins, {W. Bart} and Melissa Carrion and Georgiann Linnemeier",
year = "2013",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1080/10410236.2012.719478",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "28",
pages = "20--28",
journal = "Health Communication",
issn = "1041-0236",
publisher = "Routledge",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Examining HPV Threat-to-Efficacy Ratios in the Extended Parallel Process Model

AU - Carcioppolo, Nick

AU - Jensen, Jakob D.

AU - Wilson, Steven R.

AU - Collins, W. Bart

AU - Carrion, Melissa

AU - Linnemeier, Georgiann

PY - 2013/1

Y1 - 2013/1

N2 - The Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) posits that an effective fear appeal includes both threat and efficacy components; however, research has not addressed whether there is an optimal threat-to-efficacy ratio. It is possible that varying levels of threat and efficacy in a persuasive message could yield different effects on attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. In a laboratory experiment, women (n = 442) were exposed to human papilloma virus (HPV) prevention messages containing one of six threat-to-efficacy ratios and one of two message frames (messages emphasizing the connection between HPV and cervical cancer or HPV and genital warts). Multiple mediation analysis revealed that a 1-to-1 ratio of threat to efficacy was most effective at increasing prevention intentions, primarily because it caused more fear and risk susceptibility than other message ratios. Response efficacy significantly mediated the relationship between message framing and intentions, such that participants exposed to a genital warts message reported significantly higher intentions, and this association can be explained in part through response efficacy. Implications for future theoretical research as well as campaigns and intervention research are discussed.

AB - The Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) posits that an effective fear appeal includes both threat and efficacy components; however, research has not addressed whether there is an optimal threat-to-efficacy ratio. It is possible that varying levels of threat and efficacy in a persuasive message could yield different effects on attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. In a laboratory experiment, women (n = 442) were exposed to human papilloma virus (HPV) prevention messages containing one of six threat-to-efficacy ratios and one of two message frames (messages emphasizing the connection between HPV and cervical cancer or HPV and genital warts). Multiple mediation analysis revealed that a 1-to-1 ratio of threat to efficacy was most effective at increasing prevention intentions, primarily because it caused more fear and risk susceptibility than other message ratios. Response efficacy significantly mediated the relationship between message framing and intentions, such that participants exposed to a genital warts message reported significantly higher intentions, and this association can be explained in part through response efficacy. Implications for future theoretical research as well as campaigns and intervention research are discussed.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84873130551&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84873130551&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/10410236.2012.719478

DO - 10.1080/10410236.2012.719478

M3 - Article

VL - 28

SP - 20

EP - 28

JO - Health Communication

JF - Health Communication

SN - 1041-0236

IS - 1

ER -