The most common genetic alteration identified to date in bladder cancer is loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosome 9, suggesting the presence of possible tumor suppressor genes on this chromosome. We attempted to map the location of these genes by analyzing 69 primary transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder with a panel of microsatellite markers for LOH on chromosome 9. Monosomy 9 (defined by LOH of all informative markers analyzed on 9p and 9q) was detected in 26 of 69 (38%) tumors, and 22 of 69 (32%) tumors showed subchromosomal deletions. Twelve tumors (17%) demonstrated partial LOH of chromosome 9 and indicated two distinct regions of LOH. Eight tumors showed distal allelic loss of 9q with a minimal region of common deletion flanked proximally by marker GSN on 9q33. Six tumors showed proximal allelic loss of 9p and 9q with a minimal area of common deletion flanked by markers D9S970 on 9p12 and D9S283 on 9q21. Two tumors showed loss of both the distal region of 9q and the proximal region of 9p and 9q, which were separated by a possible 6-44 cM of retained genetic material. The proximal minimal area of common deletion excluded 9q22.3-q31 to where two putative tumor suppressor genes, the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome and multiple self-healing squamous epitheliums (ESS1) genes, have been mapped. The growth arrest-specific gene (GAS1), a candidate tumor suppressor gene, was included within the proximal minimal region. We evaluated the GAS1 gene for its potential role in bladder cancer using single-strand conformational polymorphism to screen for mutations in GAS1 in 10 bladder cancer cell lines and 14 primary bladder tumors. A polymorphism at codon 88 was noted in one primary bladder tumor, but no other abnormalities were found, suggesting that another potential tumor suppressor gene important to bladder cancer resides in these minimally deleted regions. Because the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome gene has long been speculated to be a putative tumor suppressor gene in bladder cancer and this gene has recently been characterized as the human homologue of the Drosophila patched gene (PTC), 20 primary bladder tumors with chromosome 9q LOH were screened for mutations in PTC using single-strand conformational polymorphism and heteroduplex analysis. No alterations were found in any of the samples analyzed. Furthermore, 4 of 37 noninvasive papillary (T(a)) tumors demonstrated loss of all 9q markers with retention of 9p, whereas no T(a) tumor showed loss of 9p with retention of all 9q markers, suggesting that LOH of 9q is the earlier event in bladder tumorigenesis. In summary, our results indicate two tumor suppressor loci associated with proximal chromosome 9p to q and distal chromosome 9q that may be important in bladder cancer. GAS1 and PTC do not seem to be frequently mutated in bladder cancer.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||5|
|State||Published - Nov 1 1996|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research