Evaluation of respiratory liver and kidney movements for MRI navigator gating

Ruitian Song, Aaryani Tipirneni, Perry Johnson, Ralf B. Loeffler, Claudia M. Hillenbrand

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Purpose To determine the tracking factor by studying the relationship between kidney and diaphragm motions and to compare the efficiency of the gating-and-following and gating-only algorithms in reducing motion artifacts in navigator-gated scans. Materials and Methods Diaphragm and kidney motions were measured by using real-time TrueFISP sequences from 10 healthy human volunteers to determine tracking factors at different acceptance windows. Mean tracking factors were used to calculate mean residual errors and improvement factors for the gating-and-following and gating-only algorithms. Results Mean tracking factors for ±4, ±6, ±8 mm and full acceptance windows ranged from 0.6 to 0.7, with large interindividual variations. Acceptance rates increased as the size of the acceptance window increased (acceptance rate for a 4 mm window ∼ 50%). There was a greater reduction of motion errors by gating-and-following (maximum of 1.86 mm) than gating-only (maximum of 7.05 mm). Conclusion Mean tracking factors obtained in this study can be used as a guideline for using the gating-and-following algorithm in navigator-gated kidney scans. The gating-and-following and gating-only algorithms were quantitatively compared, and it was found that the former is more effective in reducing motion errors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)143-148
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • kidney tracking
  • kidney/renal imaging
  • motion correction
  • navigator
  • organ movement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


Dive into the research topics of 'Evaluation of respiratory liver and kidney movements for MRI navigator gating'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this