Evaluation and carbon fiber reinforced polymer strengthening of existing garage: Case study

Milan Vatovec, Paul L. Kelley, Tarek Alkhrdaji, Antonio Nanni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The concrete-repair fiber reinforced polymer technology emerged in the United States during the past 10 years. Since 1995, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) has been applied to strengthen concrete decks of a troubled posttensioned garage in Atlanta. During the construction of the garage, design deficiencies were found. A remedial repair, involving heavily reinforced, 7.6 cm (3 in.) thick Gunite (Shotcrete) beams, applied to the underside of the slab between drop panels in the east-west (E-W) direction, was developed in 1984. Since then, delamination of Gunite beams and other structural problems repeatedly occurred. Epoxy injection and other limited repairs were done over the years in an attempt to remediate the problems. In 2000, due to the growing delamination concerns, backed up with nondestructive impact-echo testing results, and due to the newest set of structural analyses that showed additional design deficiencies, Simpson Gumpertz & Heger developed a new and comprehensive remedial program. The first phase of this program included an in-depth mechanical in situ load test program to study the strength and stiffness performance of the existing typical slab spans, including the effects of Gunite beams, the loss of Gunite beams due to delamination, and the CFRP strengthing of spans. The tests showed that the CFRP repair of E-W spans with delaminated Gunite beams is warranted and that it performs well. The performance of the existing typical spans in the north-south direction was found to be acceptable without any repairs. Further monitoring of the performance of Gunite beams is required, and additional CFRP strengthening will be done periodically. In addition, structural deficiencies of the typical second-level end bays were repaired using additional steel framing supports.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)184-193
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Composites for Construction
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 1 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Fiber reinforced materials
  • Georgia
  • Parking facilities
  • Polymers
  • Reinforcement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Computational Mechanics


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