Ethnic–Racial Identity of Black Emerging Adults: The Role of Parenting and Ethnic–Racial Socialization

Jamila E. Reynolds, Melinda A. Gonzales-Backen, Kimberly A. Allen, Eric A. Hurley, Roxanne A. Donovan, Seth J. Schwartz, Monika Hudson, Bede Agocha, Michelle Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Ethnic–racial identity (ERI) development is important for ethnic–racial minority youth because of its association with their positive adjustment. Guided by Garcia Coll’s ecocultural framework and using survey data from 729 Black college students, we examined the associations between relationships with parents (i.e., disrespect, psychological control, nurturance, and connection), ethnic–racial socialization (ERS), and ERI in hopes of understanding ways to promote ERI formation. Findings from two multiple group models suggested that, among men, nurturance from mothers and fathers was associated with ERI and these associations were mediated by ERS. For women, connection with mothers was associated with ERI through ERS and nurturance from fathers was indirectly and positively associated with ERI through ERS. Contrary to our hypothesis, disrespect from fathers was positively associated with ERI via ERS, but only for women. Findings suggest that both ERS and the parent–child relationship are important for ERI formation among Black emerging adults.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2200-2224
Number of pages25
JournalJournal of Family Issues
Issue number15
StatePublished - Oct 1 2017


  • family processes
  • father–child relationship
  • mother–child relationship
  • parent–child relations
  • quantitative
  • race/ethnicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)


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