Estimating normal bladder capacity in children

Martin Kaefer, David Zurakowski, Stuart B. Bauer, Alan B. Retik, Craig A. Peters, Anthony Atala, S. Ted Treves

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

117 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: An accurate estimation of normal bladder capacity can be helpful in evaluating the patient with genitourinary disease and in interpreting urodynamic data. Prior studies have provided initial estimates. We propose 2 new equations that are practical, easy to use and more accurate than those previously published. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of more than 5,000 children undergoing radionuclide cystography at our institution. Radionuclide cystography was conducted by instilling 99mtechnetium pertechnetate via gravity drip in awake children. Bladder capacity was believed to be achieved when rate of inflow diminished to a minimal rate, initiation of voiding occurred or significant discomfort was indicated. Patients with vesicoureteral reflux, infravesical obstruction, urinary tract infection, dysfunctional voiding or other lower urinary tract pathology were excluded from the study. Linear and nonlinear regression modeling established the relationship between age and bladder capacity. Results: A total of 2,066 children (598 boys and 1,468 girls) had normal radionuclide cystography and were included in the analysis. Analysis of variance demonstrated that increasing age was strongly predictive of bladder capacity (p <0.0001). Because a nonlinear model was the most accurate formula for all ages (4.5 x age0.40 = capacity [ounces]), 2 practical linear equations were determined: 2 x age (years) + 2 = capacity (ounces) for children less than 2 years old, and age (years) / 2 + 6 = capacity (ounces) for those 2 years old or older. Although girls had larger capacities than boys; the rate of increase was not significantly different between them. Conclusions: The relationship between normal bladder capacity and age in children follows a nonlinear curve. This nonlinear relationship can be approximated by 2 practical linear formulas that are easy to remember and are derived from a larger population than any prior study. These formulas provided accurate estimations of bladder capacity when prospectively applied to normal patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2261-2264
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Urology
Volume158
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 1997
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Urinary Bladder
Radioisotopes
Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
Vesico-Ureteral Reflux
Nonlinear Dynamics
Urodynamics
Gravitation
Urinary Tract
Urinary Tract Infections
Linear Models
Analysis of Variance
Pathology
Population
Cystography

Keywords

  • Bladder
  • Urinary tract
  • Urodynamics
  • Urogenital diseases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

Cite this

Kaefer, M., Zurakowski, D., Bauer, S. B., Retik, A. B., Peters, C. A., Atala, A., & Treves, S. T. (1997). Estimating normal bladder capacity in children. Journal of Urology, 158(6), 2261-2264. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(01)68230-2

Estimating normal bladder capacity in children. / Kaefer, Martin; Zurakowski, David; Bauer, Stuart B.; Retik, Alan B.; Peters, Craig A.; Atala, Anthony; Treves, S. Ted.

In: Journal of Urology, Vol. 158, No. 6, 01.12.1997, p. 2261-2264.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kaefer, M, Zurakowski, D, Bauer, SB, Retik, AB, Peters, CA, Atala, A & Treves, ST 1997, 'Estimating normal bladder capacity in children', Journal of Urology, vol. 158, no. 6, pp. 2261-2264. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(01)68230-2
Kaefer M, Zurakowski D, Bauer SB, Retik AB, Peters CA, Atala A et al. Estimating normal bladder capacity in children. Journal of Urology. 1997 Dec 1;158(6):2261-2264. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(01)68230-2
Kaefer, Martin ; Zurakowski, David ; Bauer, Stuart B. ; Retik, Alan B. ; Peters, Craig A. ; Atala, Anthony ; Treves, S. Ted. / Estimating normal bladder capacity in children. In: Journal of Urology. 1997 ; Vol. 158, No. 6. pp. 2261-2264.
@article{09842612f7d04f19b9784fed0e38564d,
title = "Estimating normal bladder capacity in children",
abstract = "Purpose: An accurate estimation of normal bladder capacity can be helpful in evaluating the patient with genitourinary disease and in interpreting urodynamic data. Prior studies have provided initial estimates. We propose 2 new equations that are practical, easy to use and more accurate than those previously published. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of more than 5,000 children undergoing radionuclide cystography at our institution. Radionuclide cystography was conducted by instilling 99mtechnetium pertechnetate via gravity drip in awake children. Bladder capacity was believed to be achieved when rate of inflow diminished to a minimal rate, initiation of voiding occurred or significant discomfort was indicated. Patients with vesicoureteral reflux, infravesical obstruction, urinary tract infection, dysfunctional voiding or other lower urinary tract pathology were excluded from the study. Linear and nonlinear regression modeling established the relationship between age and bladder capacity. Results: A total of 2,066 children (598 boys and 1,468 girls) had normal radionuclide cystography and were included in the analysis. Analysis of variance demonstrated that increasing age was strongly predictive of bladder capacity (p <0.0001). Because a nonlinear model was the most accurate formula for all ages (4.5 x age0.40 = capacity [ounces]), 2 practical linear equations were determined: 2 x age (years) + 2 = capacity (ounces) for children less than 2 years old, and age (years) / 2 + 6 = capacity (ounces) for those 2 years old or older. Although girls had larger capacities than boys; the rate of increase was not significantly different between them. Conclusions: The relationship between normal bladder capacity and age in children follows a nonlinear curve. This nonlinear relationship can be approximated by 2 practical linear formulas that are easy to remember and are derived from a larger population than any prior study. These formulas provided accurate estimations of bladder capacity when prospectively applied to normal patients.",
keywords = "Bladder, Urinary tract, Urodynamics, Urogenital diseases",
author = "Martin Kaefer and David Zurakowski and Bauer, {Stuart B.} and Retik, {Alan B.} and Peters, {Craig A.} and Anthony Atala and Treves, {S. Ted}",
year = "1997",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/S0022-5347(01)68230-2",
language = "English",
volume = "158",
pages = "2261--2264",
journal = "Journal of Urology",
issn = "0022-5347",
publisher = "Elsevier Inc.",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Estimating normal bladder capacity in children

AU - Kaefer, Martin

AU - Zurakowski, David

AU - Bauer, Stuart B.

AU - Retik, Alan B.

AU - Peters, Craig A.

AU - Atala, Anthony

AU - Treves, S. Ted

PY - 1997/12/1

Y1 - 1997/12/1

N2 - Purpose: An accurate estimation of normal bladder capacity can be helpful in evaluating the patient with genitourinary disease and in interpreting urodynamic data. Prior studies have provided initial estimates. We propose 2 new equations that are practical, easy to use and more accurate than those previously published. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of more than 5,000 children undergoing radionuclide cystography at our institution. Radionuclide cystography was conducted by instilling 99mtechnetium pertechnetate via gravity drip in awake children. Bladder capacity was believed to be achieved when rate of inflow diminished to a minimal rate, initiation of voiding occurred or significant discomfort was indicated. Patients with vesicoureteral reflux, infravesical obstruction, urinary tract infection, dysfunctional voiding or other lower urinary tract pathology were excluded from the study. Linear and nonlinear regression modeling established the relationship between age and bladder capacity. Results: A total of 2,066 children (598 boys and 1,468 girls) had normal radionuclide cystography and were included in the analysis. Analysis of variance demonstrated that increasing age was strongly predictive of bladder capacity (p <0.0001). Because a nonlinear model was the most accurate formula for all ages (4.5 x age0.40 = capacity [ounces]), 2 practical linear equations were determined: 2 x age (years) + 2 = capacity (ounces) for children less than 2 years old, and age (years) / 2 + 6 = capacity (ounces) for those 2 years old or older. Although girls had larger capacities than boys; the rate of increase was not significantly different between them. Conclusions: The relationship between normal bladder capacity and age in children follows a nonlinear curve. This nonlinear relationship can be approximated by 2 practical linear formulas that are easy to remember and are derived from a larger population than any prior study. These formulas provided accurate estimations of bladder capacity when prospectively applied to normal patients.

AB - Purpose: An accurate estimation of normal bladder capacity can be helpful in evaluating the patient with genitourinary disease and in interpreting urodynamic data. Prior studies have provided initial estimates. We propose 2 new equations that are practical, easy to use and more accurate than those previously published. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of more than 5,000 children undergoing radionuclide cystography at our institution. Radionuclide cystography was conducted by instilling 99mtechnetium pertechnetate via gravity drip in awake children. Bladder capacity was believed to be achieved when rate of inflow diminished to a minimal rate, initiation of voiding occurred or significant discomfort was indicated. Patients with vesicoureteral reflux, infravesical obstruction, urinary tract infection, dysfunctional voiding or other lower urinary tract pathology were excluded from the study. Linear and nonlinear regression modeling established the relationship between age and bladder capacity. Results: A total of 2,066 children (598 boys and 1,468 girls) had normal radionuclide cystography and were included in the analysis. Analysis of variance demonstrated that increasing age was strongly predictive of bladder capacity (p <0.0001). Because a nonlinear model was the most accurate formula for all ages (4.5 x age0.40 = capacity [ounces]), 2 practical linear equations were determined: 2 x age (years) + 2 = capacity (ounces) for children less than 2 years old, and age (years) / 2 + 6 = capacity (ounces) for those 2 years old or older. Although girls had larger capacities than boys; the rate of increase was not significantly different between them. Conclusions: The relationship between normal bladder capacity and age in children follows a nonlinear curve. This nonlinear relationship can be approximated by 2 practical linear formulas that are easy to remember and are derived from a larger population than any prior study. These formulas provided accurate estimations of bladder capacity when prospectively applied to normal patients.

KW - Bladder

KW - Urinary tract

KW - Urodynamics

KW - Urogenital diseases

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0030771647&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0030771647&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/S0022-5347(01)68230-2

DO - 10.1016/S0022-5347(01)68230-2

M3 - Article

VL - 158

SP - 2261

EP - 2264

JO - Journal of Urology

JF - Journal of Urology

SN - 0022-5347

IS - 6

ER -