Epsilon protein kinase C mediated ischemic tolerance requires activation of the extracellular regulated kinase pathway in the organotypic hippocampal slice

Christian Lange-Asschenfeldt, Ami P. Raval, Kunjan R. Dave, Daria Mochly-Rosen, Thomas J. Sick, Miguel A. Pérez-Pinzón

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

91 Scopus citations


Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) promotes brain tolerance against subsequent ischemic insults. Using the organotypic hippocampal slice culture, we conducted the present study to investigate (1) the role of adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) activation in IPC induction, (2) whether epsilon protein kinase C (εPKC) activation after IPC is mediated by the phosphoinositol pathway, and (3) whether εPKC protection is mediated by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Our results demonstrate that activation of A1AR emulated IPC, whereas blockade of the A1AR during IPC diminished neuroprotection. The neuroprotection promoted by the A1AR was also reduced by the εPKC antagonist. To determine whether εPKC activation in IPC and A1AR preconditioning is mediated by activation of the phosphoinositol pathway, we incubated slices undergoing IPC or adenosine treatment with a phosphoinositol phospholipase C inhibitor. In both cases, preconditioning neuroprotection was significantly attenuated. To further characterize the subsequent signal transduction pathway that ensues after εPKC activation, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase was blocked during IPC and pharmacologic preconditioning (PPC) (with εPKC, NMDA, or A1AR agonists). This treatment significantly attenuated IPC- and PPC-induced neuroprotection. In conclusion, we demonstrate that εPKC activation after IPC/PPC is essential for neuroprotection against oxygen/ glucose deprivation in organotypic slice cultures and that the ERK pathway is downstream to εPKC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)636-645
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2004



  • Adenosine receptors
  • Anoxia
  • In vitro culture
  • Metabolism
  • Signal transduction
  • Tolerance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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