Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is currently considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). With the advent of antiretroviral treatment and prevention, HIV-related morbidity and mortality rates have decreased significantly. Prolonged life expectancy heralded higher prevalence of diseases of aging, including CVD-associated morbidity and mortality, having an earlier onset in people living with HIV (PLHIV) compared to their noninfected counterparts. Several epigenetic biomarkers are now available as predictors of health and disease, with DNA methylation being one of the most widely studied. Epigenetic biomarkers are changes in gene expression without alterations to the intrinsic DNA sequence, with the potential to predict risk of future CVD, as well as the outcome and response to therapy among PLHIV. We sought to review the available literature referencing epigenetic markers to determine underlying biomechanism predisposing high-risk PLHIV to CVD, elucidating areas of possible intervention.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine