Background: Patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) caused by multi-drug-resistant organisms (MDROs) have been identified as being at increased risk for adverse outcomes. Prompt identification and stratification of these patients is essential in the clinical management, allowing the physician timely optimization of empiric antimicrobial therapy while awaiting results of intra-operative cultures to streamline antibiotic treatment. Methods: The study is a secondary analysis from two prospective multi-center color surveillance studies. It included all consecutively hospitalized adult patients undergoing surgical procedures, interventional drainage, or conservative treatment with cIAIs, with positive cultures performer on intra-operative samples of peritoneal fluid or purulent exudate/discrete abscesses. Patients with pancreatitis and primary peritonitis were excluded. A case-control approach has been used to evaluate the factors associated with the isolation of a MDRO in enrolled patients. Results: Among 1986 patients included in the study, a total of 3534 micro-organisms were isolated from intra-peritoneal fluid samples; in 46.5% of cultures, two or more pathogens were identified. The MDROs represented 9.8% of the total of isolated micro-organisms. The overall incidence rate of MDROs was 13.9%. The MDROs were more frequently isolated in patients with health-care-associated cIAIs (25.4%). Multi-nomial logistic regression analysis of risk factors demonstrated that statistically significant risk factors independently associated with the occurrence of MDROs were previous antimicrobial therapy administered within seven days before operation, presence of severe cardiovascular disease, white blood cell count <4000/mL or >12,000/mL, cIAI acquired in a healthcare setting, and inadequate source control. Conclusions: The study showed that knowledge of five easily recognizable variables - assessable on hospital admission or as soon as the surgical intervention is concluded - might guide the surgeon to identify patients with cIAIs caused by MDROs, and therefore to choose the most adequate empiric antimicrobial therapy for them.
- abdominal infection
- antimicrobial management
- empiric antimicrobial therapy
- health-care' associated infection
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases