Epidemiology and etiology of leukemia and lymphoma

Jordan A. Baeker Bispo, Paulo S. Pinheiro, Erin K. Kobetz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Available evidence suggests that the incidence of leukemia and lymphoma tends to be higher in highly developed regions of the world and among Whites in the United States. Temporal trends in incidence are dynamic and multifactorial; for instance, the incidence of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma increased around the turn of the century, in part because of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. Most leukemias and lymphomas are sporadic and the specific etiology remains elusive. Still, research shows that these malignancies often develop in the context of genetic abnormalities, immunosuppression, and exposure to risk factors like ionizing radiation, carcinogenic chemicals, and oncogenic viruses. The prognosis varies by subtype, with poorer survival outcomes for acute leukemias among adults, and more favorable outcomes for Hodgkin’s lymphoma. At a time when specific prevention efforts targeting these malignancies are nonexistent, there is a great need to ensure equitable access to diagnostic services and treatments worldwide.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbera034819
JournalCold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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