Genitourinary tissues can be engineered in-vitro and in-vivo for reconstruction using selective cell transplantation in combination with acellular matrices. This technology involves an interdisciplinary approach combining techniques of cell biology and materials sciences towards the development of functional tissues or organs. Tissues and organs in urology, such as the bladder, clitoris, corpus cavermosum, kidney, testis, ureter and urethra have been created in the laboratory, with varying degrees of functionality. Cells have also been recently used in patients as bulking agents for the treatment of vesicoureteral reflux and urinary incontinence. As the science of tissue engineering evolves, one can expect a wider application of this technology to the armamentarium of urologic surgery. (C) 1999 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
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