Endotoxin was detected in the plasma in 20 of 33 (63%) patients during at least one dialysis related febrile episode not associated with positive blood cultures. It was always present in the dialysate. In two of six Kiil type dialyzers perfused in vitro, endotoxin could be demonstrated to pass from the dialysate to the blood compartment. Alterations in pore size of the membrane could explain these observations.
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