Background: Endothelial cells (EC) shed endothelial microparticles (EMP) in activation and apoptosis. Objectives: We compared the antigenic expression of EMP species released during activation as compared to apoptosis, in three cell lines. Methods: EC from renal and brain microvascular (MiVEC) and coronary macrovascular (MaVEC) origin were incubated with TNF-α to induce activation, or deprived of growth factors to induce apoptosis. Antigens expressed on EMP and EC were assayed flow cytometrically and included constitutive markers (CD31, CD51/61, CD105), inducible markers (CD54, CD62E and CD106), and annexin V binding. Results: It was found that in apoptosis, constitutive markers in EMP were markedly increased (CD31>CD105), with a concomitant decrease in expression in EC. Annexin V EC surface binding and annexin V+ EMP were more sharply increased in apoptosis than in activation. In contrast, in activation, inducible markers in EMP were markedly increased in both EMP and EC (CD62E>CD54>CD106). Coronary MaVEC released significantly less EMP than MiVEC. Conclusion: EC release qualitatively and quantitatively distinct EMP during activation compared to apoptosis. Analysis of EMP phenotypic signatures may provide clinically useful information on the status of the endothelium.
- Adhesion molecules
- Endothelial cells
- Endothelial microparticles
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine