BACKGROUND: The role of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) to evaluate treatment response postneoadjuvant therapy for restaging esophageal cancer prior to surgical resection is uncertain. Accuracy of EUS is lower but potential to predict response to chemoradiation indicates that EUS may be helpful prior to surgery. OBJECTIVE: To determine staging accuracy of EUS after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, predictors of tumor response, and survival in locally advanced esophageal cancer. METHODS: Single-center retrospective evaluation of patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer on a prospective chemotherapy study. Patients who underwent EUS without FNA pre- and postchemotherapy were included. RESULTS: A total of 49 patients (43 men and 6 women) were evaluated with EUS pre- and postneoadjuvant chemotherapy. Forty-seven patients had tumor localized at the GE junction and two had mid-esophageal lesions. The median survival time was 53 months. Tumor and nodal staging accuracy postchemotherapy were 60% (27 of 45). T-stage accuracy postchemotherapy was superior in patients without a response to chemotherapy (95.7% vs 26.1%, p < 0.0001). More than 50% in reduction of tumor thickness postchemotherapy was associated with tumor downstage and better survival. N0 disease on final pathology was the best predictor of improved survival. CONCLUSION: Accuracy of EUS postchemotherapy is lower than initial staging accuracy; therefore the ability to predict downstaging based on EUS is marginal. Pathology N1 disease postchemotherapy is the best predictor of survival. EUS staging postneoadjuvant chemotherapy should focus on improving nodal staging accuracy with FNA.
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