The endoscopic treatment of reflux, like that of urinary incontinence, is effective. Several materials and endoscopic delivery systems are currently under evaluation for the treatment of reflux and incontinence. These include silicone microimplants, glass particles, collagen, dextranomer microspheres, a detachable balloon system, chondrocytes, and muscle cells. Although the endoscopic treatment is rendered in a similar fashion for both urinary incontinence and reflux, the acceptable safety and efficacy parameters of the bulking agents may differ, depending on the condition treated and the age of the patient. A review of the endoscopic bulking substances and systems currently available is presented.
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