Purpose To investigate clinical settings, management strategies, antibiotic sensitivities, and visual acuity outcomes of endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Design Retrospective, observational case series. Methods Records were reviewed of all patients with culture-positive endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae treated at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 2003. Main outcome measures Visual acuity and antibiotic sensitivities. Results Twenty-seven eyes of 27 patients met study inclusion criteria. The median follow-up was 7 months (range, 3 months to 10 years). Clinical settings included acute postoperative (10 eyes), corneal stitch abscess (5), corneal ulcer (3), bleb-associated (4), post-trauma (3), and endogenous (2). Eighteen cases (67%) were acute-onset (less than 3 weeks from event), with a median interval between event and presentation of endophthalmitis of 5 days (range, 1 day to 16 days). Nine cases (33%) were delayed-onset (median, 27 months; range, 3 to 121 months). Initial visual acuity was hand motions or better in 11 cases (41%). Initial therapeutic procedures included vitreous tap and injection of intravitreal antibiotics in 15 eyes (56%), pars plana vitrectomy and injection of intravitreal antibiotics in 10 eyes (37%), and evisceration in 2 eyes (7%). Seventeen (68%) of 25 eyes received intravitreal dexamethasone. Twelve patients (48%) received additional doses of intraocular antibiotics, and 11patients (44%) underwent secondary surgical intervention within one week of diagnosis. The Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates showed sensitivity patterns as follows: 27/27 vancomycin, 13/13 clindamycin, 6/6 cefazolin, 11/11 ciprofloxacin, 14/14 moxifloxacin, 24/26 (92%) ofloxacin, 12/14 (86%) levofloxacin, 13/14 (93%) gatifloxacin, and 1/13 (8%) gentamicin. The organism was sensitive to at least one antibiotic administered initially in all cases. Final visual acuity was 20/400 or better in 8/27 (30%) cases, but 10 eyes (37%) had a final vision of no light perception. Conclusion Despite prompt treatment with appropriate antibiotics, endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with a poor visual prognosis.
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